If the publisher becomes unavailable, subscribers cannot synchronize configuration and management history data.
You might need to force the subscriber to standalone mode in order to make it a new publisher.
Replication failures can be caused by hardware failures, network connectivity issues, operating system faults, insufficient permissions, etc.
Recovering Replication if the Publisher Is Not Available
Replication can be recovered by restoring current publisher or by promoting another SQL Server to the publisher role.
If current Publisher cannot be restored, you might need to transfer the publisher role to SQL Server that holds the subscriber role. You can reconfigure other subscribers to use the new publisher. You will have to force remove all the subscribers from the replication group first by forcing it to a standalone mode.
To remove a subscriber from the replication group follow the steps below:
Note: Before you can promote the server to a publisher, make sure you re-connect the ARS MMC console.
Once all subscribers are removed from the replication group, you can promote one of the former subscribers to publisher role.
You can promote the publisher and add subscribers to the new publisher as follows:
After you add a subscriber, the configuration data stored on the publisher will be replicated to the subscriber, overriding the data on that subscriber.
Therefore, if you want to keep the existing configuration data, assign the publisher role to one of the former subscribers.
This will ensure that each Administration Service in the new replication group inherits the existing configuration.
Please make sure the SQL Server patch levels are exactly the same on ALL servers - publisher AND subscribers.
Otherwise, you will NOT be able to add any replication partners.