It's not possible to get the password from Active Directory and pass it to PeopleSoft.
While it's possible to get the password hash via Quick Connect, there is no ability to send it to PeopleSoft.
It is not possible to sync the password from Active Directory to PeopleSoft in a Provisioning Workflow when provisioning from Active Directory users to PeopleSoft.
The only supported password sync method from Active Directory to PeopleSoft is real-time (i.e. a user changes the password via CTRL+ALT+DEL).