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syslog-ng Open Source Edition 3.30 - Administration Guide

Preface Introduction to syslog-ng The concepts of syslog-ng Installing syslog-ng The syslog-ng OSE quick-start guide The syslog-ng OSE configuration file source: Read, receive, and collect log messages
How sources work default-network-drivers: Receive and parse common syslog messages internal: Collecting internal messages file: Collecting messages from text files wildcard-file: Collecting messages from multiple text files linux-audit: Collecting messages from Linux audit logs network: Collecting messages using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) nodejs: Receiving JSON messages from nodejs applications mbox: Converting local email messages to log messages osquery: Collect and parse osquery result logs pipe: Collecting messages from named pipes pacct: Collecting process accounting logs on Linux program: Receiving messages from external applications python: writing server-style Python sources python-fetcher: writing fetcher-style Python sources snmptrap: Read Net-SNMP traps sun-streams: Collecting messages on Sun Solaris syslog: Collecting messages using the IETF syslog protocol (syslog() driver) system: Collecting the system-specific log messages of a platform systemd-journal: Collecting messages from the systemd-journal system log storage systemd-syslog: Collecting systemd messages using a socket tcp, tcp6, udp, udp6: Collecting messages from remote hosts using the BSD syslog protocol— OBSOLETE unix-stream, unix-dgram: Collecting messages from UNIX domain sockets stdin: Collecting messages from the standard input stream
destination: Forward, send, and store log messages
amqp: Publishing messages using AMQP collectd: sending metrics to collectd elasticsearch2: Sending messages directly to Elasticsearch version 2.0 or higher (DEPRECATED) elasticsearch-http: Sending messages to Elasticsearch HTTP Bulk API file: Storing messages in plain-text files graphite: Sending metrics to Graphite Sending logs to Graylog hdfs: Storing messages on the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) Posting messages over HTTP http: Posting messages over HTTP without Java kafka: Publishing messages to Apache Kafka (Java implementation) kafka: Publishing messages to Apache Kafka (C implementation, using the librdkafka client) loggly: Using Loggly logmatic: Using Logmatic.io mongodb: Storing messages in a MongoDB database network: Sending messages to a remote log server using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) osquery: Sending log messages to osquery's syslog table pipe: Sending messages to named pipes program: Sending messages to external applications pseudofile() python: writing custom Python destinations redis: Storing name-value pairs in Redis riemann: Monitoring your data with Riemann slack: Sending alerts and notifications to a Slack channel smtp: Generating SMTP messages (email) from logs snmp: Sending SNMP traps Splunk: Sending log messages to Splunk sql: Storing messages in an SQL database stomp: Publishing messages using STOMP Sumo Logic destinations: sumologic-http() and sumologic-syslog() syslog: Sending messages to a remote logserver using the IETF-syslog protocol syslog-ng(): Forward logs to another syslog-ng node tcp, tcp6, udp, udp6: Sending messages to a remote log server using the legacy BSD-syslog protocol (tcp(), udp() drivers) Telegram: Sending messages to Telegram unix-stream, unix-dgram: Sending messages to UNIX domain sockets usertty: Sending messages to a user terminal: usertty() destination Write your own custom destination in Java or Python Client-side failover
log: Filter and route log messages using log paths, flags, and filters Global options of syslog-ng OSE TLS-encrypted message transfer template and rewrite: Format, modify, and manipulate log messages parser: Parse and segment structured messages db-parser: Process message content with a pattern database (patterndb) Correlating log messages Enriching log messages with external data Statistics of syslog-ng Multithreading and scaling in syslog-ng OSE Troubleshooting syslog-ng Best practices and examples The syslog-ng manual pages Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives (by-nc-nd) License Glossary

The concepts of syslog-ng

This chapter discusses the technical concepts of syslog-ng.

The philosophy of syslog-ng

Typically, syslog-ng is used to manage log messages and implement centralized logging, where the aim is to collect the log messages of several devices on a single, central log server. The different devices — called syslog-ng clients — all run syslog-ng, and collect the log messages from the various applications, files, and other sources. The clients send all important log messages to the remote syslog-ng server, which sorts and stores them.

Logging with syslog-ng

The syslog-ng application reads incoming messages and forwards them to the selected destinations. The syslog-ng application can receive messages from files, remote hosts, and other sources.

Log messages enter syslog-ng in one of the defined sources, and are sent to one or more destinations.

Sources and destinations are independent objects, log paths define what syslog-ng does with a message, connecting the sources to the destinations. A log path consists of one or more sources and one or more destinations: messages arriving from a source are sent to every destination listed in the log path. A log path defined in syslog-ng is called a log statement.

Optionally, log paths can include filters. Filters are rules that select only certain messages, for example, selecting only messages sent by a specific application. If a log path includes filters, syslog-ng sends only the messages satisfying the filter rules to the destinations set in the log path.

Other optional elements that can appear in log statements are parsers and rewriting rules. Parsers segment messages into different fields to help processing the messages, while rewrite rules modify the messages by adding, replacing, or removing parts of the messages.

The route of a log message in syslog-ng

Purpose:

The following procedure illustrates the route of a log message from its source on the syslog-ng client to its final destination on the central syslog-ng server.

Figure 1: The route of a log message

Steps:
  1. A device or application sends a log message to a source on the syslog-ng client. For example, an Apache web server running on Linux enters a message into the /var/log/apache file.

  2. The syslog-ng client running on the web server reads the message from its /var/log/apache source.

  3. The syslog-ng client processes the first log statement that includes the /var/log/apache source.

  4. The syslog-ng client performs optional operations (message filtering, parsing, and rewriting) on the message, for example, it compares the message to the filters of the log statement (if any). If the message complies with all filter rules, syslog-ng sends the message to the destinations set in the log statement, for example, to the remote syslog-ng server.

    Caution:

    Message filtering, parsing, and rewriting is performed in the order that the operations appear in the log statement.

    NOTE: The syslog-ng client sends a message to all matching destinations by default. As a result, a message may be sent to a destination more than once, if the destination is used in multiple log statements. To prevent such situations, use the final flag in the destination statements. For details, see Log statement flags.

  5. The syslog-ng client processes the next log statement that includes the /var/log/apache source, repeating Steps 3-4.

  6. The message sent by the syslog-ng client arrives from a source set in the syslog-ng server.

  7. The syslog-ng server reads the message from its source and processes the first log statement that includes that source.

  8. The syslog-ng server performs optional operations (message filtering, parsing, and rewriting) on the message, for example, it compares the message to the filters of the log statement (if any). If the message complies with all filter rules, syslog-ng sends the message to the destinations set in the log statement.

    Caution:

    Message filtering, parsing, and rewriting is performed in the order that the operations appear in the log statement.

  9. The syslog-ng server processes the next log statement, repeating Steps 7-9.

    NOTE: The syslog-ng application can stop reading messages from its sources if the destinations cannot process the sent messages. This feature is called flow-control and is detailed in Managing incoming and outgoing messages with flow-control.

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