Chat now with support
Chat with Support

syslog-ng Premium Edition 7.0.12 - Administration Guide

Preface Introduction to syslog-ng The concepts of syslog-ng Installing syslog-ng The syslog-ng PE quick-start guide The syslog-ng PE configuration file Collecting log messages — sources and source drivers
How sources work default-network-drivers: Receive and parse common syslog messages internal: Collecting internal messages file: Collecting messages from text files wildcard-file: Collecting messages from multiple text files network: Collecting messages using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) osquery: Collect and parse osquery result logs pipe: Collecting messages from named pipes program: Receiving messages from external applications python: writing server-style Python sources python-fetcher: writing fetcher-style Python sources snmptrap: Read Net-SNMP traps sun-streams: Collecting messages on Sun Solaris syslog: Collecting messages using the IETF syslog protocol (syslog() driver) system: Collecting the system-specific log messages of a platform systemd-journal: Collecting messages from the systemd-journal system log storage systemd-syslog: Collecting systemd messages using a socket tcp, tcp6, udp, udp6: Collecting messages from remote hosts using the BSD syslog protocol unix-stream, unix-dgram: Collecting messages from UNIX domain sockets windowsevent: Collecting Windows event logs
Sending and storing log messages — destinations and destination drivers
elasticsearch: Sending messages directly to Elasticsearch version 1.x elasticsearch2: Sending messages directly to Elasticsearch version 2.0 or higher file: Storing messages in plain-text files hdfs: Storing messages on the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) http: Posting messages over HTTP kafka: Publishing messages to Apache Kafka logstore: Storing messages in encrypted files mongodb: Storing messages in a MongoDB database network: Sending messages to a remote log server using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) pipe: Sending messages to named pipes program: Sending messages to external applications python: writing custom Python destinations smtp: Generating SMTP messages (e-mail) from logs splunk-hec: Sending messages to Splunk HTTP Event Collector sql: Storing messages in an SQL database syslog: Sending messages to a remote logserver using the IETF-syslog protocol syslog-ng: Forwarding messages and tags to another syslog-ng node tcp, tcp6, udp, udp6: Sending messages to a remote log server using the legacy BSD-syslog protocol (tcp(), udp() drivers) unix-stream, unix-dgram: Sending messages to UNIX domain sockets usertty: Sending messages to a user terminal — usertty() destination Client-side failover
Routing messages: log paths, flags, and filters Global options of syslog-ng PE TLS-encrypted message transfer Advanced Log Transfer Protocol Reliability and minimizing the loss of log messages Manipulating messages parser: Parse and segment structured messages Processing message content with a pattern database Correlating log messages Enriching log messages with external data Monitoring statistics and metrics of syslog-ng Multithreading and scaling in syslog-ng PE Troubleshooting syslog-ng Best practices and examples The syslog-ng manual pages About us

Error messages

Destination queue full
Error message:
Destination queue full, dropping messages; queue_len='10000', 
log_fifo_size='10000', count='4', 
persist_name='afsocket_dd_qfile(stream,serverdown:514)' 
Description:

This message indicates message loss.

Flow-control must be enabled in the log path. When flow-control is enabled, syslog-ng will stop reading messages from the sources of the log statement if the destinations are not able to process the messages at the required speed.

If flow-control is enabled, syslog-ng will only drop messages if the destination queues/window sizes are improperly sized.

Solution:

Enable flow-control in the log path.

If flow-control is disabled, syslog-ng will drop messages if the destination queues are full. Note that syslog-ng will drop messages even if the server is alive. If the remote server accepts logs at a slower rate than the sender syslog-ng receives them, the sender syslog-ng will fill up the destination queue, then drop the newer messages. Sometimes this error occurs only at a specific time interval, for example, only between7:00AM and8:00AM or between16:00PM and17:00PM when your users log in or log off and that generates a lot of messages within a short interval.

For more information, see Managing incoming and outgoing messages with flow-control.

Alert unknown CA
Error message:
SSL error while writing stream; tls_error='SSL routines:ssl3_read_bytes:tlsv1 alert unknown ca'
Description:

This message indicates that the other (remote) side could not verify the certificate sent by syslog-ng.

Solution:

Check the logs on the remote site and identify why the receiving syslog-ng could not find the CA certificate that signed this certificate.

PEM routines:PEM_read_bio:no start line
Error message:
testuser@thor-x1:~/cert_no_start_line/certs$ openssl x509 -in cert.pem -text
unable to load certificate
140178126276248:error:0906D06C:PEM routines:PEM_read_bio:no start 
line:pem_lib.c:701:Expecting: TRUSTED CERTIFICATE
Description:

The error message is displayed when using Transport Layer Security (TLS). The syslog-ng application uses OpenSSL for TLS and this message indicates that the certificate contains characters that OpenSSL cannot process.

The error occurs when the certificate comes from Windows and you want to use it on a Linux-based computer. On Windows, the end of line (EOL) character is different (\r\n) compared to Linux (\n).

To verify this, open the certificate in a text editor, for example, MCEdit. Notice the^Mcharacters as shown in the image below:

Figure 41: Example of OpenSSL character processing error

Solution:
  • On Windows, save the certificate using UTF-8, for example, using Notepad++.

    NOTE:

    Windows Notepad is not able to save the file in normal UTF-8, even if you select it.

    1. In Notepad++, from the menu, selectEncoding.

    2. Change the value fromUTF-8-BOMtoUTF-8.

    3. Save.

  • On Linux, run dos2unix cert.pem. This will convert the file to a Linux-compatible style.

    Alternatively, replace the EOL characters in the file manually.

TID is already used
Error message:
TID is already used; proto='0x202c6c0', 
TID='61b6456d2f02052780d0d8930cbd043857c2463fcb6014b748b1450595a682', 
client='10.140.35.9'
Syslog connection closed;
Description:

When a client using Advanced Log Transfer Protocol (ALTP) connects to the server for the first time, it generates a persistent ID and sends it to the server during the handshake process. This is the TID.

If the client loses the connection to the server silently, for example, the UTP cable is pulled from the host or other network issues happen, the server is unable to detect the connection loss.

If the client tries to reconnect within a short time interval, it will send the same TID. However, the server allows only one connection with the same TID. As the server “thinks” that it already has a live connection with this TID, it drops the new connection due to the duplicated TID.

Solution:

This error is eliminated automatically because the ALTP server will close the connection if there were no new messages from the client within the timeout frame. Once the timeout period of the ALTP server has passed, the client will be able to reconnect to the server (when the time_reopen() of the client has elapsed).

If this error message appears regularly, it means that your network may be unstable, and sometimes the client loses the connection to the server in an abnormal way.

Best practices and examples

This chapter discusses some special examples and recommendations.

General recommendations

This section provides general tips and recommendations on using syslog-ng. Some of the recommendations are detailed in the subsequent sections.

  • Do not base the separation of log messages into different files on the facility parameter. As several applications and processes can use the same facility, the facility does not identify the application that sent the message. By default, the facility parameter is not even included in the log message itself. In general, sorting the log messages into several different files can make finding specific log messages difficult. If you must create separate log files, use the application name.

  • Standard log messages include the local time of the sending host, without any time zone information. It is recommended to replace this timestamp with an ISODATE timestamp, because the ISODATE format includes the year and timezone as well. To convert all timestamps to the ISODATE format, include the following line in the syslog-ng configuration file:

    options {ts-format(iso) ; };
  • Resolving the IP addresses of the clients to domain names can decrease the performance of syslog-ng. For details, see Using name resolution in syslog-ng.

Handling large message load

This section provides tips on optimizing the performance of syslog-ng. Optimizing the performance is important for syslog-ng hosts that handle large traffic.

  • Disable DNS resolution, or resolve hostnames locally. For details, see Using name resolution in syslog-ng.

  • Enable flow-control for the TCP sources. For details, see Managing incoming and outgoing messages with flow-control.

  • Do not use the usertty() destination driver. Under heavy load, the users are not be able to read the messages from the console, and it slows down syslog-ng.

  • Do not use regular expressions in our filters. Evaluating general regular expressions puts a high load on the CPU. Use simple filter functions and logical operators instead. For details, see Regular expressions.

  • Caution:

    When receiving messages using the UDP protocol, increase the size of the UDP receive buffer on the receiver host (that is, the syslog-ng PE server or relay receiving the messages). Note that on certain platforms, for example, on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, even low message load (~200 messages per second) can result in message loss, unless the so-rcvbuf() option of the source is increased. In such cases, you will need to increase the net.core.rmem_max parameter of the host (for example, to 1024000), but do not modify net.core.rmem_default parameter.

    As a general rule, increase the so-rcvbuf() so that the buffer size in kilobytes is higher than the rate of incoming messages per second. For example, to receive 2000 messages per second, set the so-rcvbuf() at least to 2 097 152 bytes.

  • Increase the value of the flush-lines() parameter. Increasing flush-lines() from 0 to 100 can increase the performance of syslog-ng PE by 100%.

Related Documents