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syslog-ng Premium Edition 7.0.12 - Administration Guide

Preface Introduction to syslog-ng The concepts of syslog-ng Installing syslog-ng The syslog-ng PE quick-start guide The syslog-ng PE configuration file Collecting log messages — sources and source drivers
How sources work default-network-drivers: Receive and parse common syslog messages internal: Collecting internal messages file: Collecting messages from text files wildcard-file: Collecting messages from multiple text files network: Collecting messages using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) osquery: Collect and parse osquery result logs pipe: Collecting messages from named pipes program: Receiving messages from external applications python: writing server-style Python sources python-fetcher: writing fetcher-style Python sources snmptrap: Read Net-SNMP traps sun-streams: Collecting messages on Sun Solaris syslog: Collecting messages using the IETF syslog protocol (syslog() driver) system: Collecting the system-specific log messages of a platform systemd-journal: Collecting messages from the systemd-journal system log storage systemd-syslog: Collecting systemd messages using a socket tcp, tcp6, udp, udp6: Collecting messages from remote hosts using the BSD syslog protocol unix-stream, unix-dgram: Collecting messages from UNIX domain sockets windowsevent: Collecting Windows event logs
Sending and storing log messages — destinations and destination drivers
elasticsearch: Sending messages directly to Elasticsearch version 1.x elasticsearch2: Sending messages directly to Elasticsearch version 2.0 or higher file: Storing messages in plain-text files hdfs: Storing messages on the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) http: Posting messages over HTTP kafka: Publishing messages to Apache Kafka logstore: Storing messages in encrypted files mongodb: Storing messages in a MongoDB database network: Sending messages to a remote log server using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) pipe: Sending messages to named pipes program: Sending messages to external applications python: writing custom Python destinations smtp: Generating SMTP messages (e-mail) from logs splunk-hec: Sending messages to Splunk HTTP Event Collector sql: Storing messages in an SQL database syslog: Sending messages to a remote logserver using the IETF-syslog protocol syslog-ng: Forwarding messages and tags to another syslog-ng node tcp, tcp6, udp, udp6: Sending messages to a remote log server using the legacy BSD-syslog protocol (tcp(), udp() drivers) unix-stream, unix-dgram: Sending messages to UNIX domain sockets usertty: Sending messages to a user terminal — usertty() destination Client-side failover
Routing messages: log paths, flags, and filters Global options of syslog-ng PE TLS-encrypted message transfer Advanced Log Transfer Protocol Reliability and minimizing the loss of log messages Manipulating messages parser: Parse and segment structured messages Processing message content with a pattern database Correlating log messages Enriching log messages with external data Monitoring statistics and metrics of syslog-ng Multithreading and scaling in syslog-ng PE Troubleshooting syslog-ng Best practices and examples The syslog-ng manual pages About us

python-fetcher: writing fetcher-style Python sources

The Python source allows you to write your own source in Python. You can import external Python modules to receive or fetch the messages. Since many services have a Python library, the Python source makes integrating syslog-ng PE very easy and quick.

You can write two different type of sources in Python:

  • Server-style sources that receives messages. Write server-style sources if you want to use an event-loop based, nonblocking server framework in Python, or if you want to implement a custom loop.

  • Fetcher-style sources that actively fetch messages. In general, write fetcher-style sources (for example, when using simple blocking APIs), unless you explicitly need a server-style source.

This section describes fetcher-style sources. For details on server-style sources, see python: writing server-style Python sources.

    The following points apply to using Python blocks in syslog-ng PE in general.

  • Python parsers and template functions are available in syslog-ng PE version 7.0.2 and later.

    Python destinations and sources are available in syslog-ng PE version 7.0.11 and later.

  • Supported Python versions: 2.7

  • The Python block must be a top-level block in the syslog-ng PE configuration file.

  • If you store the Python code in a separate Python file and only include it in the syslog-ng PE configuration file, make sure that the PYTHON_PATH environment variable includes the path to the Python file, and export the PYTHON_PATH environment variable. For example, if you start syslog-ng PE manually from a terminal and you store your Python files in the /opt/syslog-ng/etc directory, use the following command: export PYTHONPATH=/opt/syslog-ng/etc

    In production, when syslog-ng PE starts on boot, you must configure your startup script to include the Python path. The exact method depends on your operating system. For recent Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Fedora, and CentOS distributions that use systemd, the systemctl command sources the /etc/sysconfig/syslog-ng file before starting syslog-ng PE. (On openSUSE and SLES, /etc/sysconfig/syslog file.) Append the following line to the end of this file: PYTHONPATH="<path-to-your-python-file>", for example, PYTHONPATH="/opt/syslog-ng/etc"

  • The Python object is initiated every time when syslog-ng PE is started or reloaded.

    Caution:

    If you reload syslog-ng PE, existing Python objects are destroyed, therefore the context and state information of Python blocks is lost. Log rotation and updating the configuration of syslog-ng PE typically involves a reload.

  • The Python block can contain multiple Python functions.

  • Using Python code in syslog-ng PE can significantly decrease the performance of syslog-ng PE, especially if the Python code is slow. In general, the features of syslog-ng PE are implemented in C, and are faster than implementations of the same or similar features in Python.

  • Validate and lint the Python code before using it. The syslog-ng PE application does not do any of this.

  • Python error messages are available in the internal() source of syslog-ng PE.

  • You can access the name-value pairs of syslog-ng PE directly through a message object or a dict.

  • Support disclaimer:

    Using Python in syslog-ng PE is recommended only if you are familiar with both Python and syslog-ng PE. Product support applies only to syslog-ng PE: that is, until the entry point of the Python code and passing the specified arguments to the Python code. One Identity is not responsible for the quality, resource requirements, or any bugs in the Python code, nor any syslog-ng PE crashes, message losses, or any other damage caused by the improper use of this feature, unless explicitly stated in a contract with One Identity.

Declaration:

Python sources consist of two parts. The first is a syslog-ng PE source object that you define in your syslog-ng PE configuration and use in the log path. This object references a Python class, which is the second part of the Python source. The Python class receives or fetches the log messages, and can do virtually anything that you can code in Python. You can either embed the Python class into your syslog-ng PE configuration file, or store it in an external Python file.

source <name_of_the_python_source>{
    python-fetcher(
        class("<name_of_the_python_class_executed_by_the_source>")
    );
};

python {
from syslogng import LogFetcher
from syslogng import LogMessage

class <name_of_the_python_class_executed_by_the_source>(LogFetcher):
    def init(self, options): # optional
        print("init")
        print(options)
        return True

    def deinit(self): # optional
        print("deinit")

    def open(self): # optional
        print("open")
        return True

    def fetch(self): # mandatory
        print("fetch")
        # return LogFetcher.FETCH_ERROR,
        # return LogFetcher.FETCH_NOT_CONNECTED,
        return LogFetcher.FETCH_SUCCESS, msg

    def request_exit(self):
        print("request_exit")
        # If your fetching method is blocking, do something to break it
        # For example, if it reads a socket: socket.shutdown()

    def close(self): # optional
        print("close")
};

Methods of the python-fetcher() source

Fetcher-style Python sources must be inherited from the syslogng.LogFetcher class, and must implement at least the fetch method. Multiple inheritance is allowed, but only for pure Python super classes.

For fetcher-style Python sources, syslog-ng PE handles the event loop and the scheduling automatically. You can use simple blocking server/client libraries to receive or fetch logs.

You can retrieve messages using the fetch() method.

init(self, options) method (optional)

The syslog-ng PE application initializes Python objects every time when it is started or reloaded. The init method is executed as part of the initialization. You can perform any initialization steps that are necessary for your source to work.

Caution:

If you reload syslog-ng PE, existing Python objects are destroyed, therefore the context and state information of Python blocks is lost. Log rotation and updating the configuration of syslog-ng PE typically involves a reload.

When this method returns with False, syslog-ng PE does not start. It can be used to check options and return False when they prevent the successful start of the source.

options: This optional argument contains the contents of the options() parameter of the syslog-ng PE configuration object as a Python dict.

open(self) method (optional)

The open(self) method opens the resources required for the source, for example, it initiates a connection to the target service. It is called after init() when syslog-ng PE is started or reloaded. If fetch() returns with an error, syslog-ng PE calls the close() and open() methods before trying to fetch a new message.

If open() fails, it should return the False value. In this case, syslog-ng PE retries it every time-reopen() seconds. By default, this is 1 second for Python sources and destinations, the value of time-reopen() is not inherited from the global option. For details, see python-fetcher: writing fetcher-style Python sources.

fetch(self) method (mandatory)

Use the fetch method to fetch messages and pass them to the log paths.

For details on parsing messages, see Python LogMessage API.

The fetch method must return one of the following values:

  • LogFetcher.FETCH_ERROR: Fetching new messages failed, syslog-ng PE calls the close and open methods.

  • LogFetcher.FETCH_NOT_CONNECTED: Could not access the source, syslog-ng PE calls the open method.

  • LogFetcher.FETCH_SUCCESS, msg: Post the message returned as the second argument.

request_exit(self) method (optional)

If you use blocking operations within the fetch() method, use request_exit() to interrupt those operations (for example, to shut down a socket), otherwise syslog-ng PE is not able to stop. Note that syslog-ng PE calls the request_exit method from a thread different from the source thread.

close(self) method (optional)

Close the connection to the target service. Usually it is called right before deinit() when stopping or reloading syslog-ng PE. It is also called when fecth() fails.

The deinit(self) method (optional)

This method is executed when syslog-ng PE is stopped or reloaded. This method does not return a value.

Caution:

If you reload syslog-ng PE, existing Python objects are destroyed, therefore the context and state information of Python blocks is lost. Log rotation and updating the configuration of syslog-ng PE typically involves a reload.

For the list of available optional parameters, see python() and python-fetcher() source options.

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