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syslog-ng Premium Edition 7.0.14 - Administration Guide

Preface Introduction to syslog-ng The concepts of syslog-ng Installing syslog-ng The syslog-ng PE quick-start guide The syslog-ng PE configuration file Collecting log messages — sources and source drivers
How sources work default-network-drivers: Receive and parse common syslog messages internal: Collecting internal messages file: Collecting messages from text files wildcard-file: Collecting messages from multiple text files linux-audit: Collecting messages from Linux audit logs network: Collecting messages using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) osquery: Collect and parse osquery result logs pipe: Collecting messages from named pipes program: Receiving messages from external applications python: writing server-style Python sources python-fetcher: writing fetcher-style Python sources snmptrap: Read Net-SNMP traps sun-streams: Collecting messages on Sun Solaris syslog: Collecting messages using the IETF syslog protocol (syslog() driver) system: Collecting the system-specific log messages of a platform systemd-journal: Collecting messages from the systemd-journal system log storage systemd-syslog: Collecting systemd messages using a socket tcp, tcp6, udp, udp6: Collecting messages from remote hosts using the BSD syslog protocol unix-stream, unix-dgram: Collecting messages from UNIX domain sockets windowsevent: Collecting Windows event logs
Sending and storing log messages — destinations and destination drivers
elasticsearch2: Sending messages directly to Elasticsearch version 2.0 or higher (DEPRECATED) elasticsearch-http: Sending messages to Elasticsearch HTTP Event Collector file: Storing messages in plain-text files hdfs: Storing messages on the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) http: Posting messages over HTTP kafka: Publishing messages to Apache Kafka logstore: Storing messages in encrypted files mongodb: Storing messages in a MongoDB database network: Sending messages to a remote log server using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) pipe: Sending messages to named pipes program: Sending messages to external applications python: writing custom Python destinations smtp: Generating SMTP messages (e-mail) from logs splunk-hec: Sending messages to Splunk HTTP Event Collector sql: Storing messages in an SQL database stackdriver: Sending logs to the Google Stackdriver cloud syslog: Sending messages to a remote logserver using the IETF-syslog protocol syslog-ng(): Forward logs to another syslog-ng node tcp, tcp6, udp, udp6: Sending messages to a remote log server using the legacy BSD-syslog protocol (tcp(), udp() drivers) unix-stream, unix-dgram: Sending messages to UNIX domain sockets usertty: Sending messages to a user terminal — usertty() destination Client-side failover
Routing messages: log paths, flags, and filters Global options of syslog-ng PE TLS-encrypted message transfer Advanced Log Transfer Protocol Reliability and minimizing the loss of log messages Manipulating messages parser: Parse and segment structured messages Processing message content with a pattern database Correlating log messages Enriching log messages with external data Monitoring statistics and metrics of syslog-ng Multithreading and scaling in syslog-ng PE Troubleshooting syslog-ng Best practices and examples The syslog-ng manual pages

Prerequisites

The following describes how to publish messages from syslog-ng PE to Apache Kafka.

To publish messages from syslog-ng PE to Apache Kafka

  1. If you want to use the Java-based modules of syslog-ng PE (for example, the Elasticsearch, HDFS, or Kafka destinations), download and install the Java Runtime Environment (JRE), 1.7 (or newer).

    The Java-based modules of syslog-ng PE are tested and supported when using the Oracle implementation of Java. Other implementations are untested and unsupported, they may or may not work as expected.

  2. Download the latest stable binary release of the Apache Kafka libraries (version 0.9 or newer) from http://kafka.apache.org/downloads.html.

  3. Extract the Apache Kafka libraries into a single directory. If needed, collect the various .jar files into a single directory (for example, /opt/kafka/lib/) where syslog-ng PE can access them. You must specify this directory in the syslog-ng PE configuration file.

  4. Check if the following files in the Kafka libraries have the same version number: slf4j-api-<version-number>.jar, slf4j-log4j12-<version-number>.jar. If the version number of these files is different, complete the following steps:

    1. Delete one of the files (for example, slf4j-log4j12-<version-number>.jar).

    2. Download a version that matches the version number of the other file (for example, 1.7.6) from the official SLF4J distribution.

    3. Copy the downloaded file into the directory of your Kafka library files (for example, /opt/kafka/lib/).

How syslog-ng PE interacts with Apache Kafka

When stopping the syslog-ng PE application, syslog-ng PE will not stop until all Java threads are finished, including the threads started by the Kafka Producer. There is no way (except for the kill -9 command) to stop syslog-ng PE before the Kafka Producer stops. To change this behavior set the properties of the Kafka Producer in its properties file, and reference the file in the properties-file option.

The syslog-ng PE kafka destination tries to reconnect to the brokers in a tight loop. This can look as spinning, because of a lot of similar debug messages. To decrease the amount of such messages, set a bigger timeout using the following properties:

retry.backoff.ms=1000
reconnect.backoff.ms=1000

For details on using property files, see properties-file(). For details on the properties that you can set in the property file, see the Apache Kafka documentation.

Kafka destination options

The kafka destination of syslog-ng PE can directly publish log messages to the Apache Kafka message bus, where subscribers can access them. The kafka destination has the following options.

Required options

The following options are required: kafka-bootstrap-servers(), topic(). Note that to use kafka, you must add the following lines to the beginning of your syslog-ng PE configuration:

@module mod-java
@include "scl.conf"
client-lib-dir()
Type: string
Default: The syslog-ng PE module directory: /opt/syslog-ng/lib/syslog-ng/java-modules/

Description: The list of the paths where the required Java classes are located. For example, class-path("/opt/syslog-ng/lib/syslog-ng/java-modules/:/opt/my-java-libraries/libs/"). If you set this option multiple times in your syslog-ng PE configuration (for example, because you have multiple Java-based destinations), syslog-ng PE will merge every available paths to a single list.

For the kafka destination, include the path to the directory where you copied the required libraries (see Prerequisites), for example, client-lib-dir(/opt/syslog-ng/lib/syslog-ng/java-modules/KafkaDestination.jar:/usr/share/kafka/lib/*.jar).

kafka-bootstrap-servers()
Type: list of hostnames
Default:

Description: Specifies the hostname or IP address of the Kafka server. When specifying an IP address, IPv4 (for example, 192.168.0.1) or IPv6 (for example, [::1]) can be used as well. Use a colon (:) after the address to specify the port number of the server. When specifying multiple addresses, use a comma to separate the addresses, for example, kafka-bootstrap-servers("127.0.0.1:2525,remote-server-hostname:6464")

frac-digits()
Type: number
Default: 0

Description: The syslog-ng application can store fractions of a second in the timestamps according to the ISO8601 format. The frac-digits() parameter specifies the number of digits stored. The digits storing the fractions are padded by zeros if the original timestamp of the message specifies only seconds. Fractions can always be stored for the time the message was received. Note that syslog-ng can add the fractions to non-ISO8601 timestamps as well.

jvm-options()
Type: list
Default: N/A

Description: Specify the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) settings of your Java destination from the syslog-ng PE configuration file.

For example:

jvm-options("-Xss1M -XX:+TraceClassLoading")

You can set this option only as a global option, by adding it to the options statement of the syslog-ng configuration file.

on-error()
Accepted values:

drop-message|drop-property|fallback-to-string|

silently-drop-message|silently-drop-property|silently-fallback-to-string

Default: Use the global setting (which defaults to drop-message)

Description: Controls what happens when type-casting fails and syslog-ng PE cannot convert some data to the specified type. By default, syslog-ng PE drops the entire message and logs the error. Currently the value-pairs() option uses the settings of on-error().

  • drop-message: Drop the entire message and log an error message to the internal() source. This is the default behavior of syslog-ng PE.

  • drop-property: Omit the affected property (macro, template, or message-field) from the log message and log an error message to the internal() source.

  • fallback-to-string: Convert the property to string and log an error message to the internal() source.

  • silently-drop-message: Drop the entire message silently, without logging the error.

  • silently-drop-property: Omit the affected property (macro, template, or message-field) silently, without logging the error.

  • silently-fallback-to-string: Convert the property to string silently, without logging the error.

key()
Type: template
Default: N/A

Description: The key of the partition under which the message is published. You can use templates to change the topic dynamically based on the source or the content of the message, for example, key("${PROGRAM}").

log-fifo-size()
Type: number
Default: Use global setting.

Description: The number of messages that the output queue can store.

properties-file()
Type: string (absolute path)
Default: N/A

Description: The absolute path and filename of the Kafka properties file to load. For example, properties-file("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/kafka_dest.properties"). The syslog-ng PE application reads this file and passes the properties to the Kafka Producer. If a property is defined both in the syslog-ng PE configuration file (syslog-ng.conf) and in the properties file, then syslog-ng PE uses the definition from the syslog-ng PE configuration file.

The syslog-ng PE kafka destination supports all properties of the official Kafka producer. For details, see the Apache Kafka documentation.

The kafka-bootstrap-servers option is translated to the bootstrap.servers property.

For example, the following properties file defines the acknowledgement method and compression:

acks=all
compression.type=snappy
retries()
Type: number (of attempts)
Default: 3

Description: The number of times syslog-ng PE attempts to send a message to this destination. If syslog-ng PE could not send a message, it will try again until the number of attempts reaches retries, then drops the message.

sync-send()
Type: true | false
Default: false

Description: When sync-send is set to true, syslog-ng PE sends the message reliably: it sends a message to the Kafka server, then waits for a reply. In case of failure, syslog-ng PE repeats sending the message, as set in the retries() parameter. If sending the message fails for retries() times, syslog-ng PE drops the message.

This method ensures reliable message transfer, but is very slow.

When sync-send is set to false, syslog-ng PE sends messages asynchronously, and receives the response asynchronously. In case of a problem, syslog-ng PE cannot resend the messages.

This method is fast, but the transfer is not reliable. Several thousands of messages can be lost before syslog-ng PE recognizes the error.

template()
Type: template or template function
Default: $ISODATE $HOST $MSGHDR$MSG\n

Description: The message as published to Apache Kafka. You can use templates and template functions (for example, format-json()) to format the message, for example, template("$(format-json --scope rfc5424 --exclude DATE --key ISODATE)").

For details on formatting messages in JSON format, see format-json.

throttle()
Type: number
Default: 0

Description: Sets the maximum number of messages sent to the destination per second. Use this output-rate-limiting functionality only when using the disk-buffer option as well to avoid the risk of losing messages. Specifying 0 or a lower value sets the output limit to unlimited.

topic()
Type: template
Default: N/A

Description: The Kafka topic under which the message is published. You can use templates to change the topic dynamically based on the source or the content of the message, for example, topic("${HOST}").

time-zone()
Type: name of the timezone, or the timezone offset
Default: unspecified

Description: Convert timestamps to the timezone specified by this option. If this option is not set, then the original timezone information in the message is used. Converting the timezone changes the values of all date-related macros derived from the timestamp, for example, HOUR. For the complete list of such macros, see Date-related macros.

The timezone can be specified as using the name of the (for example time-zone("Europe/Budapest")), or as the timezone offset in +/-HH:MM format (for example +01:00). On Linux and UNIX platforms, the valid timezone names are listed under the /usr/share/zoneinfo directory.

ts-format()
Type: rfc3164, bsd, rfc3339, iso
Default: rfc3164

Description: Override the global timestamp format (set in the global ts-format() parameter) for the specific destination. For details, see ts-format().

logstore: Storing messages in encrypted files

The syslog-ng PE application can store log messages securely in encrypted, compressed and timestamped binary files. Timestamps can be requested from an external Timestamping Authority (TSA).

Logstore files consist of individual chunks, every chunk can be encrypted, compressed, and timestamped separately. Chunks contain compressed log messages and header information needed for retrieving messages from the logstore file.

The syslog-ng PE application generates an SHA-1 hash for every chunk to verify the integrity of the chunk. The hashes of the chunks are chained together to prevent injecting chunks into the logstore file. The syslog-ng PE application can encrypt the logstore using various algorithms, using the aes128 encryption algorithm in CBC mode and the hmac-sha1 hashing (HMAC) algorithm as default. For other algorithms, see cipher() and digest().

The destination filename may include macros which get expanded when the message is written, thus a simple logstore() driver may create several files. For more information on available macros see Macros of syslog-ng PE.

If the expanded filename refers to a directory which does not exist, it will be created depending on the create-dirs() setting (both global and a per destination option).

The logstore() has a single required parameter that specifies the filename that stores the log messages. For the list of available optional parameters, see logstore() destination options.

Caution:

Hazard of data loss! If your log files are on an NFS-mounted network file system, see NFS file system for log files.

Declaration
logstore(filename options());
Example: Using the logstore() driver

A simple example saving and compressing log messages.

destination d_logstore { logstore("/var/log/messages.lgs" compress(5) ); };

A more detailed example that encrypts messages, modifies the parameters for closing chunks, and sets file privileges.

destination d_logstore {
    logstore("/var/log/messages-logstore.lgs"
        encrypt-certificate("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/keys/10-100-20-40/public-certificate-of-the-server.pem")
        owner("example")
        group("example")
        perm(0777)
    );
};

The URL to the Timestamping Authority and if needed, the OID of the timestamping policy can be set as global options, or also per logstore destination. The following example specifies the URL and the OID as global options:

options {
        timestamp-url("http://10.50.50.50:8080/");
        timestamp-policy("0.4.0.2023.1.1");
};

NOTE:

When using the logstore() destination, update the configuration of your log rotation program to rotate these files. Otherwise, the log files can become very large.

Caution:

Since the state of each created file must be tracked by syslog-ng, it consumes some memory for each file. If no new messages are written to a file within 60 seconds (controlled by the time-reap() global option), it is closed, and its state is freed.

Exploiting this, a DoS attack can be mounted against the system. If the number of possible destination files and its needed memory is more than the amount available on the syslog-ng server.

The most suspicious macro is ${PROGRAM}, where the number of possible variations is rather high. Do not use the ${PROGRAM} macro in insecure environments.

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