Chat now with support
Chat with Support

syslog-ng Premium Edition 7.0.9 - Administration Guide

Preface Introduction to syslog-ng The concepts of syslog-ng Installing syslog-ng The syslog-ng PE quick-start guide The syslog-ng PE configuration file Collecting log messages — sources and source drivers
How sources work default-network-drivers: Receive and parse common syslog messages internal: Collecting internal messages file: Collecting messages from text files wildcard-file: Collecting messages from multiple text files network: Collecting messages using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) osquery: Collect and parse osquery result logs pipe: Collecting messages from named pipes program: Receiving messages from external applications snmptrap: Read Net-SNMP traps sun-streams: Collecting messages on Sun Solaris syslog: Collecting messages using the IETF syslog protocol (syslog() driver) system: Collecting the system-specific log messages of a platform systemd-journal: Collecting messages from the systemd-journal system log storage systemd-syslog: Collecting systemd messages using a socket tcp, tcp6, udp, udp6: Collecting messages from remote hosts using the BSD syslog protocol unix-stream, unix-dgram: Collecting messages from UNIX domain sockets windowsevent: Collecting Windows event logs
Sending and storing log messages — destinations and destination drivers
elasticsearch: Sending messages directly to Elasticsearch version 1.x elasticsearch2: Sending messages directly to Elasticsearch version 2.0 or higher file: Storing messages in plain-text files hdfs: Storing messages on the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) http: Posting messages over HTTP kafka: Publishing messages to Apache Kafka logstore: Storing messages in encrypted files mongodb: Storing messages in a MongoDB database network: Sending messages to a remote log server using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) pipe: Sending messages to named pipes program: Sending messages to external applications smtp: Generating SMTP messages (e-mail) from logs Splunk: Sending log messages to Splunk sql: Storing messages in an SQL database syslog: Sending messages to a remote logserver using the IETF-syslog protocol syslog-ng: Forwarding messages and tags to another syslog-ng node tcp, tcp6, udp, udp6: Sending messages to a remote log server using the legacy BSD-syslog protocol (tcp(), udp() drivers) unix-stream, unix-dgram: Sending messages to UNIX domain sockets usertty: Sending messages to a user terminal — usertty() destination
Routing messages: log paths, flags, and filters Global options of syslog-ng PE TLS-encrypted message transfer Reliable Log Transfer Protocol Manipulating messages Parsers and segmenting structured messages Processing message content with a pattern database Correlating log messages Enriching log messages with external data Monitoring statistics and metrics of syslog-ng Multithreading and scaling in syslog-ng PE Troubleshooting syslog-ng Best practices and examples The syslog-ng manual pages About us

Options of date-parser() parsers

The date-parser() parser has the following options.

format()
Synopsis: format(string)
Default:

Description: Specifies the format how syslog-ng PE should parse the date. You can use the following format elements:

%%      PERCENT
%a      day of the week, abbreviated
%A      day of the week
%b      month abbr
%B      month
%c      MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS
%C      ctime format: Sat Nov 19 21:05:57 1994
%d      numeric day of the month, with leading zeros (eg 01..31)
%e      like %d, but a leading zero is replaced by a space (eg  1..32)
%D      MM/DD/YY
%G      GPS week number (weeks since January 6, 1980)
%h      month, abbreviated
%H      hour, 24 hour clock, leading 0's)
%I      hour, 12 hour clock, leading 0's)
%j      day of the year
%k      hour
%l      hour, 12 hour clock
%L      month number, starting with 1
%m      month number, starting with 01
%M      minute, leading 0's
%n      NEWLINE
%o      ornate day of month -- "1st", "2nd", "25th", etc.
%p      AM or PM
%P      am or pm (Yes %p and %P are backwards :)
%q      Quarter number, starting with 1
%r      time format: 09:05:57 PM
%R      time format: 21:05
%s      seconds since the Epoch, UCT
%S      seconds, leading 0's
%t      TAB
%T      time format: 21:05:57
%U      week number, Sunday as first day of week
%w      day of the week, numerically, Sunday == 0
%W      week number, Monday as first day of week
%x      date format: 11/19/94
%X      time format: 21:05:57
%y      year (2 digits)
%Y      year (4 digits)
%Z      timezone in ascii. eg: PST
%z      timezone in format -/+0000

For example, for the date 01/Jan/2016:13:05:05 PST use the following format string: format("%d/%b/%Y:%H:%M:%S %Z")

template()
Synopsis: template("${<macroname>}")

Description: The macro that contains the part of the message that the parser will process. It can also be a macro created by a previous parser of the log path. By default, the parser processes the entire message (${MESSAGE}).

timestamp()
Synopsis: stamp | recvd
Default: stamp

Description: Determines if the parsed date values are treated as sent or received date. If you use timezone(stamp), syslog-ng PE adds the parsed date to the S_ macros (corresponding to the sent date). If you use timezone(recvd), syslog-ng PE adds the parsed date to the R_ macros (corresponding to the received date).

timezone()
Synopsis: timezone(string)
Default:

Description: If this option is set, syslog-ng PE assumes that the parsed timestamp refers to the specified timezone. The timezone set in the timezone() option overrides any timezone information parsed from the timestamp.

The timezone can be specified as using the name of the (for example time-zone("Europe/Budapest")), or as the timezone offset in +/-HH:MM format (for example +01:00). On Linux and UNIX platforms, the valid timezone names are listed under the /usr/share/zoneinfo directory.

The Cisco Parser

The Cisco Parser can parse the log messages of various Cisco devices. The messages of these devices often do not completely comply with the syslog RFCs, making them difficult to parse. The cisco-parser() of syslog-ng PE solves this problem, and can separate these log messages to name-value pairs, extracting also the Cisco-specific values, for example, the mnemonic. For details on using value-pairs in syslog-ng PE see Structuring macros, metadata, and other value-pairs. The parser can parse variations of the following message format:

<pri>(sequence: )?(origin-id: )?(timestamp? timezone?: )?%msg

For example:

<189>29: foo: *Apr 29 13:58:40.411: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console
<190>30: foo: *Apr 29 13:58:46.411: %SYS-6-LOGGINGHOST_STARTSTOP: Logging to host 192.168.1.239 stopped - CLI initiated
<190>31: foo: *Apr 29 13:58:46.411: %SYS-6-LOGGINGHOST_STARTSTOP: Logging to host 192.168.1.239 started - CLI initiated
<189>32: 0.0.0.0: *Apr 29 13:59:12.491: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console

Note that not every Cisco log message conforms to this format. If you find a message that the cisco-parser() cannot properly parse, send it to documentation@balabit.com so we can improve the parser.

The syslog-ng PE application normalizes the parsed log messages into the following format:

${MESSAGE}=%FAC-SEV-MNEMONIC: message
${HOST}=origin-id

By default, the Cisco-specific fields are extracted into the following name-value pairs:${.cisco.facility}, ${.cisco.severity}, ${.cisco.mnemonic}. You can change the prefix using the prefix option.

Declaration:
@version: 7.0
@include "scl.conf"
log {
    source { udp(flags(no-parse)); };
    parser { cisco-parser(); };
    destination { ... };
};

Note that you have to disable message parsing in the source using the flags(no-parse) option for the parser to work.

The cisco-parser() is actually a reusable configuration snippet configured to parse Cisco messages. For details on using or writing such configuration snippets, see Reusing configuration blocks. You can find the source of this configuration snippet on GitHub.

prefix()
Synopsis: prefix()

Description: Insert a prefix before the name part of the parsed name-value pairs to help further processing. For example:

  • To insert the my-parsed-data. prefix, use the prefix(my-parsed-data.) option.

  • To refer to a particular data that has a prefix, use the prefix in the name of the macro, for example, ${my-parsed-data.name} .

  • If you forward the parsed messages using the IETF-syslog protocol, you can insert all the parsed data into the SDATA part of the message using the prefix(.SDATA.my-parsed-data.) option.

Names starting with a dot (for example, .example) are reserved for use by syslog-ng PE. If you use such a macro name as the name of a parsed value, it will attempt to replace the original value of the macro (note that only soft macros can be overwritten, see Hard vs. soft macros for details). To avoid such problems, use a prefix when naming the parsed values, for example, prefix(my-parsed-data.)

By default, cisco-parser() uses the cisco. prefix. To modify it, use the following format:

parser { cisco-parser(prefix("myprefix.")); };

The Python Parser

The Python Log Parser allows you to write your own parser in Python. Practically, that way you can process the log message (or parts of the log message) any way you need. For example, you can import external Python modules to process the messages, query databases to enrich the messages with additional data, and many other things.

  • Available in syslog-ng PE version 7.0.2 and later.

  • Currently only Python 2.7 is supported.

    Caution:

    If you are planning to use Python in syslog-ng PE (for example Python parser or Python template function) on RHEL 6 platform, then you have to manually install Python 2.7. If the Python version on the machine is not 2.7, you will receive a similar error message during startup:

    [2017-07-27T13:42:03.606679] Reading shared object for a candidate module; path='/opt/syslog-ng/lib/syslog-ng', fname='mod-python.so', module='mod-python' [2017-07-27T13:42:03.606994] Error opening plugin module; module='mod-python', error='libpython2.7.so.1.0: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory'

  • The Python block must be a top-level block in the syslog-ng PE configuration file. If you store the Python code in a separate Python file and only include it in the syslog-ng PE configuration file, make sure that the PYTHON_PATH environment variable includes the path to the Python file, and export the PYTHON_PATH environment variable. For example: export PYTHONPATH=/opt/syslog-ng/etc

  • The Python object is initiated only once, when syslog-ng PE is started or reloaded. That means it keeps the state of internal variables while syslog-ng PE is running.

  • The Python block can contain multiple Python functions.

  • Using Python code in syslog-ng PE can significantly decrease the performance of syslog-ng PE, especially if the Python code is slow.

  • Validate and lint the Python code before using it. The syslog-ng PE application does not do any of this.

  • Support disclaimer:

    Using Python in syslog-ng PE is recommended only if you are familiar with both Python and syslog-ng PE. Product support applies only to syslog-ng PE: that is, until the entry point of the Python code and passing the specified arguments to the Python code. One Identity is not responsible for the quality, resource requirements, or any bugs in the Python code, nor any syslog-ng PE crashes, message losses, or any other damage caused by the improper use of this feature, unless explicitly stated in a contract with One Identity.

Declaration:

Python parsers consist of two parts. The first is a syslog-ng PE parser object that you use in your syslog-ng PE configuration, for example, in the log path. This parser references a Python class, which is the second part of the Python parsers. The Python class processes the log messages it receives, and can do virtually anything that you can code in Python.

parser <name_of_the_python_parser>{
  python(
    class("<name_of_the_python_class_executed_by_the_parser>")
  );
};

python {
import re
class MyParser(object):
    def init(self, options):
        '''Optional. This method is executed when syslog-ng is started or reloaded.'''
        return True
    def deinit(self):
        '''Optional. This method is executed when syslog-ng is stopped or reloaded.'''
        return True
    def parse(self, msg):
        '''Required. This method receives and processes the log message.'''
        return True
};
Methods of the python() parser
The init (self, options) method (optional)

The syslog-ng PE application initializes Python objects only when it is started or reloaded. That means it keeps the state of internal variables while syslog-ng PE is running. The init method is executed as part of the initialization. You can perform any initialization steps that are necessary for your parser to work. For example, if you want to perform a lookup from a file or a database, you can open the file or connect to the database here, or you can initialize a counter that you will increase in the parse() method.

The return value of the init() method must be True. If it returns False, or raises an exception, syslog-ng PE will not start.

options: This optional argument contains the contents of the options() parameter of the parser object as a Python dict.

parser my_python_parser{
  python(
    class("MyParser")
    options("regex", "seq: (?P<seq>\\d+), thread: (?P<thread>\\d+), runid: (?P<runid>\\d+), stamp: (?P<stamp>[^ ]+) (?P<padding>.*$)")
  );
};
class MyParser(object):
    def init(self, options):
        pattern = options["regex"]
        self.regex = re.compile(pattern)
        self.counter = 0
        return True
The parse(self, log_message) method

The parse() method processes the log messages it receives, and can do virtually anything that you can code in Python. This method is required, otherwise syslog-ng PE will not start.

The return value of the parse() method must be True. If it returns False, or raises an exception, syslog-ng PE will drop the message.

  • To reference a name-value pair or a macro in the Python code, use the following format. For example, if the first argument in the definition of the function is called log-message, the value of the HOST macro is log-message['HOST'], and so on. (The log-message contains the entire log message (not just the text body) in a structure similar to a Python dict, but it is actually an object.)

  • You can define new name-value pairs in the Python function. For example, if the first argument in the definition of the function is called log-message, you can create a new name-value pair like this: log_message["new-macro-name"]="value". This is useful when you parse a part of the message from Python, or lookup a value based on data extracted from the log message.

    Note that the names of the name-value pairs are case-sensitive. If you create a new name-value pair called new-macro-name in Python, and want to reference it in another part of the syslog-ng PE configuration file (for example, in a template), use the ${new-macro-name} macro.

  • You cannot override hard macros (see Hard vs. soft macros).

  • To list all available keys (names of name-value pairs), use the log_message.keys() function.

The deinit(self) method (optional)

This method is executed when syslog-ng PE is stopped or reloaded.

Caution:

It is common practice for log rotate solutions to reload syslog-ng PE (by sending a HUP signal or using the operating system's init subsystem) and for users to execute syslog-ng-ctl reload (to start a configuration file reload). Care should be taken in these cases, because the methods and attributes defined in a Python parser block definition lose their context and state during a syslog-ng PE reload.

Example: Parse loggen logs

The following sample code parses the messages of the loggen tool (for details, see The loggen manual page). The following is a sample loggen message:

<38>2017-04-05T12:16:46 localhost prg00000[1234]: seq: 0000000000, thread: 0000, runid: 1491387406, stamp: 2017-04-05T12:16:46 PADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADDPADD

The syslog-ng PE parser object references the LoggenParser class and passes a set of regular expressions to parse the loggen messages. The init() method of the LoggenParser class compiles these expressions into a pattern. The parse method uses these patterns to extract the fields of the message into name-value pairs. The destination template of the syslog-ng PE log statement uses the extracted fields to format the output message.

@version: 7.0
@include "scl.conf"
parser my_python_parser{
  python(
    class("LoggenParser")
    options("regex", "seq: (?P<seq>\\d+), thread: (?P<thread>\\d+), runid: (?P<runid>\\d+), stamp: (?P<stamp>[^ ]+) (?P<padding>.*$)")
  );
};
log {
  source { tcp(port(5555)); };
  parser(my_python_parser);
  destination {  file("/tmp/regexparser.log.txt" template("seq: $seq thread: $thread runid: $runid stamp: $stamp my_counter: $MY_COUNTER"));};
};
python {
import re
class LoggenParser(object):
    def init(self, options):
        pattern = options["regex"]
        self.regex = re.compile(pattern)
        self.counter = 0
        return True
    def deinit(self):
        return True
    def parse(self, log_message):
        match = self.regex.match(log_message['MESSAGE'])
        if match:
            for key, value in match.groupdict().items():
                log_message[key] = value
            log_message['MY_COUNTER'] = self.counter
            self.counter += 1
            return True
        return False
};
Example: Parse Windows eventlogs in Python - performance

The following example uses regular expressions to process Windows log messages received in XML format from the syslog-ng Agent for Windows application. The parser extracts different fields from messages received from the Security and the Application eventlog containers. Using the following configuration file, syslog-ng PE could process about 25000 real-life Windows log messages per second.

@version: 7.0
options {
    keep_hostname(yes);
    keep_timestamp(no);
    stats_level(2);
    use_dns(no);
};
source s_network_aa5fdf25c39d4017a8e504cdb641b477 {
    network(flags(no-parse)
        ip(0.0.0.0)
        log_fetch_limit(1000)
        log_iw_size(100000)
        max_connections(100)
        port(514));
};
parser p_python_parser_79c31da44bb64de6b5de84be4ae15a15 {
    python(options("regex_for_security", ".* Security ID:  (?P<security_id>\\S+)   Account Name:  (?P<account_name>\\S+)   Account Domain:  (?P<account_domain>\\S+)   Logon ID:  (?P<logon_id>\\S+).*Process Name: (?P<process_name>\\S+).*EventID (?P<event_id>\\d+)", "regex_others", "(.*)EventID (?P<event_id>\\d+)")
class("EventlogParser"));
};
destination d_file_78363e1dd90c4ebcbb0ee1eff5a2e310 {
    file("/var/testdb_working_dir/fcd713a2-d48e-4025-9192-ec4a9852cafa.$HOST"
        flush_lines(1000)
        log_fifo_size(200000));
};
log {
    source(s_network_aa5fdf25c39d4017a8e504cdb641b477);
    parser(p_python_parser_79c31da44bb64de6b5de84be4ae15a15);
    destination(d_file_78363e1dd90c4ebcbb0ee1eff5a2e310);

    flags(flow-control);
};

python {
import re
class EventlogParser(object):
    def init(self, options):
        self.regex_security = re.compile(options["regex_for_security"])
        self.regex_others = re.compile(options["regex_others"])
        return True
    def deinit(self):
        return True
    def parse(self, log_message):
        security_match = self.regex_security.match(log_message['MESSAGE'])
        if security_match:
            for key, value in security_match.groupdict().items():
                log_message[key] = value
        else:
            others_match = self.regex_others.match(log_message['MESSAGE'])
            if others_match:
                for key, value in others_match.groupdict().items():
                    log_message[key] = value
        return True
};

Parsing EWMM messages

The ewmm-parser() can be used to parse messages sent by another syslog-ng host using the enterprise-wide message model (EWMM) format. Available in version 7.0.9 and later. Note that usually you do not have to use this parser directly, because the default-network-drivers() source automatically parses such messages.

Declaration:
parser parser_name {
    ewmm-parser();
};
Related Documents

The document was helpful.

Select Rating

I easily found the information I needed.

Select Rating