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syslog-ng Open Source Edition 3.33 - Administration Guide

Preface Introduction to syslog-ng The concepts of syslog-ng Installing syslog-ng The syslog-ng OSE quick-start guide The syslog-ng OSE configuration file source: Read, receive, and collect log messages
How sources work default-network-drivers: Receive and parse common syslog messages internal: Collecting internal messages file: Collecting messages from text files wildcard-file: Collecting messages from multiple text files linux-audit: Collecting messages from Linux audit logs network: Collecting messages using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) nodejs: Receiving JSON messages from nodejs applications mbox: Converting local email messages to log messages osquery: Collect and parse osquery result logs pipe: Collecting messages from named pipes pacct: Collecting process accounting logs on Linux program: Receiving messages from external applications python: writing server-style Python sources python-fetcher: writing fetcher-style Python sources snmptrap: Read Net-SNMP traps sun-streams: Collecting messages on Sun Solaris syslog: Collecting messages using the IETF syslog protocol (syslog() driver) system: Collecting the system-specific log messages of a platform systemd-journal: Collecting messages from the systemd-journal system log storage systemd-syslog: Collecting systemd messages using a socket tcp, tcp6, udp, udp6: Collecting messages from remote hosts using the BSD syslog protocol— OBSOLETE unix-stream, unix-dgram: Collecting messages from UNIX domain sockets stdin: Collecting messages from the standard input stream
destination: Forward, send, and store log messages
amqp: Publishing messages using AMQP collectd: sending metrics to collectd elasticsearch2: Sending messages directly to Elasticsearch version 2.0 or higher (DEPRECATED) elasticsearch-http: Sending messages to Elasticsearch HTTP Bulk API file: Storing messages in plain-text files graphite: Sending metrics to Graphite Sending logs to Graylog hdfs: Storing messages on the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) Posting messages over HTTP http: Posting messages over HTTP without Java kafka: Publishing messages to Apache Kafka (Java implementation) kafka(): Publishing messages to Apache Kafka (C implementation, using the librdkafka client) loggly: Using Loggly logmatic: Using Logmatic.io mongodb: Storing messages in a MongoDB database mqtt() destination: sending messages from a local network to an MQTT broker network: Sending messages to a remote log server using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) osquery: Sending log messages to osquery's syslog table pipe: Sending messages to named pipes program: Sending messages to external applications pseudofile() python: writing custom Python destinations redis: Storing name-value pairs in Redis riemann: Monitoring your data with Riemann slack: Sending alerts and notifications to a Slack channel smtp: Generating SMTP messages (email) from logs snmp: Sending SNMP traps Splunk: Sending log messages to Splunk sql: Storing messages in an SQL database stomp: Publishing messages using STOMP Sumo Logic destinations: sumologic-http() and sumologic-syslog() syslog: Sending messages to a remote logserver using the IETF-syslog protocol syslog-ng(): Forward logs to another syslog-ng node tcp, tcp6, udp, udp6: Sending messages to a remote log server using the legacy BSD-syslog protocol (tcp(), udp() drivers) Telegram: Sending messages to Telegram unix-stream, unix-dgram: Sending messages to UNIX domain sockets usertty: Sending messages to a user terminal: usertty() destination Write your own custom destination in Java or Python Client-side failover
log: Filter and route log messages using log paths, flags, and filters Global options of syslog-ng OSE TLS-encrypted message transfer template and rewrite: Format, modify, and manipulate log messages parser: Parse and segment structured messages db-parser: Process message content with a pattern database (patterndb) Correlating log messages Enriching log messages with external data Statistics of syslog-ng Multithreading and scaling in syslog-ng OSE Troubleshooting syslog-ng Best practices and examples The syslog-ng manual pages Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives (by-nc-nd) License Glossary

Splunk: Sending log messages to Splunk

Although syslog-ng OSE currently does not have any built-in integration with Splunk, the existing message-formatting features and flexibility of syslog-ng OSE allows you to forward your log messages to Splunk. In syslog-ng OSE version 3.8 or later, you can use the http() destination. In earlier versions, you can use the program() destination.

For details on forwarding log messages to Splunk with syslog-ng OSE see the following posts on the Splunk blog:

Note that the syslog-ng Premium Edition application has a dedicated Splunk destination. For details, see splunk-hec: Sending messages to Splunk HTTP Event Collector.

sql: Storing messages in an SQL database

The sql() driver sends messages into an SQL database. Currently the Microsoft SQL (MSSQL), MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL, and SQLite databases are supported.

Declaration:
sql(database_type host_parameters database_parameters [options]);

The sql() driver has the following required parameters: type(), database(), table(), columns(), and values().

Caution:

The syslog-ng application requires read and write access to the SQL table, otherwise it cannot verify that the destination table exists.

Currently the syslog-ng application has default schemas for the different databases and uses these defaults if the database schema (for example, columns and column types) is not defined in the configuration file. However, these schemas will be deprecated and specifying the exact database schema will be required in later versions of syslog-ng.

NOTE: In addition to the standard syslog-ng packages, the sql() destination requires database-specific packages to be installed. These packages are automatically installed by the binary syslog-ng installer.

The table and value parameters can include macros to create tables and columns dynamically (for details, see Macros of syslog-ng OSE).

Caution:

When using macros in table names, note that some databases limit the maximum allowed length of table names. Consult the documentation of the database for details.

Inserting the records into the database is performed by a separate thread. The syslog-ng application automatically performs the escaping required to insert the messages into the database.

Example: Using the sql() driver

The following example sends the log messages into a PostgreSQL database running on the logserver host. The messages are inserted into the logs database, the name of the table includes the exact date and the name of the host sending the messages. The syslog-ng application automatically creates the required tables and columns, if the user account used to connect to the database has the required privileges.

destination d_sql {
    sql(type(pgsql)
    host("logserver") username("syslog-ng") password("password")
    database("logs")
    table("messages_${HOST}_${R_YEAR}${R_MONTH}${R_DAY}")
    columns("datetime", "host", "program", "pid", "message")
    values("{$R_DATE}", "${HOST}", "${PROGRAM}", "${PID}", "${MSGONLY}")
    indexes("datetime", "host", "program", "pid", "message"));
};

The following example specifies the type of the database columns as well:

destination d_sql {
    sql(type(pgsql)
    host("logserver") username("syslog-ng") password("password")
    database("logs")
    table("messages_${HOST}_${R_YEAR}${R_MONTH}${R_DAY}")
    columns("datetime varchar(16)", "host varchar(32)", "program  varchar(20)", "pid varchar(8)", "message  varchar(200)")
    values("${R_DATE}", "${HOST}", "${PROGRAM}", "${PID}", "${MSGONLY}")
    indexes("datetime", "host", "program", "pid", "message"));
};

Using the sql() driver with an Oracle database

The Oracle sql destination has some special aspects that are important to note.

  • The hostname of the database server is set in the tnsnames.ora file, not in the host parameter of the sql() destination.

    If the tnsnames.ora file is not located in the /etc directory (or in the /var/opt/oracle directory on Solaris), set the following Oracle-related environment variables, so syslog-ng OSE will find the file: ORACLE_BASE, ORACLE_HOME, and ORACLE_SID. For details, see the documentation of the Oracle Instant Client.

  • You cannot use the same database() settings in more than one destination, because the database() option of the SQL driver is just a reference to the connection string of the tnsnames.ora file. To overcome this problem, you can duplicate the connections in the tnsnames.ora file under a different name, and use a different table in each Oracle destination in syslog-ng OSE.

  • As certain database versions limit the maximum length of table names, macros in the table names should be used with care.

  • In the current version of syslog-ng OSE, the types of database columns must be explicitly set for the Oracle destination. The column used to store the text part of the syslog messages should be able to store messages as long as the longest message permitted by syslog-ng, therefore it is usually recommended to use the varchar2 or clob column type. (The maximum length of the messages can be set using the log-msg-size() option.) For details, see the following example.

  • The Oracle Instant Client used by syslog-ng OSE supports only the following character sets:

    • Single-byte character sets: US7ASCII, WE8DEC, WE8MSWIN1252, and WE8ISO8859P1

    • Unicode character sets: UTF8, AL16UTF16, and AL32UTF8

Example: Using the sql() driver with an Oracle database

The following example sends the log messages into an Oracle database running on the logserver host, which must be set in the /etc/tnsnames.ora file. The messages are inserted into the LOGS database, the name of the table includes the exact date when the messages were sent. The syslog-ng application automatically creates the required tables and columns, if the user account used to connect to the database has the required privileges.

destination d_sql {
  sql(type(oracle)
  username("syslog-ng") password("password")
  database("LOGS")
  table("msgs_${R_YEAR}${R_MONTH}${R_DAY}")
  columns("datetime varchar(16)", "host varchar(32)", "program varchar(32)", "pid varchar(8)", "message varchar2")
  values("${R_DATE}", "${HOST}", "${PROGRAM}", "${PID}", "${MSGONLY}")
  indexes("datetime", "host", "program", "pid", "message"));
};

The Oracle Instant Client retrieves the address of the database server from the /etc/tnsnames.ora file. Edit or create this file as needed for your configuration. A sample is provided below.

LOGS =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS_LIST =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)
(HOST = logserver)
(PORT = 1521))
)
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVICE_NAME = EXAMPLE.SERVICE)
)
)

Using the sql() driver with a Microsoft SQL database

The mssql database driver can access Microsoft SQL (MSSQL) destinations. This driver has some special aspects that are important to note.

  • The date format used by the MSSQL database must be explicitly set in the /etc/locales.conf file of the syslog-ng server. For details, see the following example.

  • As certain database versions limit the maximum length of table names, macros in the table names should be used with care.

  • In the current version of syslog-ng OSE, the types of database columns must be explicitly set for the MSSQL destination.

    Caution:

    The following column types cannot be used in MSSQL destinations: nchar, nvarchar, ntext, and xml.

  • The column used to store the text part of the syslog messages should be able to store messages as long as the longest message permitted by syslog-ng. The varchar column type can store maximum 4096 bytes-long messages. The maximum length of the messages can be set using the log-msg-size() option. For details, see the following example.

  • Remote access for SQL users must be explicitly enabled on the Microsoft Windows host running the Microsoft SQL Server. For details, see Configuring Microsoft SQL Server to accept logs from syslog-ng.

Example: Using the sql() driver with an MSSQL database

The following example sends the log messages into an MSSQL database running on the logserver host. The messages are inserted into the syslogng database, the name of the table includes the exact date when the messages were sent. The syslog-ng application automatically creates the required tables and columns, if the user account used to connect to the database has the required privileges.

destination d_mssql {
sql(type(mssql) host("logserver") port("1433")
  username("syslogng") password("syslogng") database("syslogng")
  table("msgs_${R_YEAR}${R_MONTH}${R_DAY}")columns("datetime varchar(16)", "host varchar(32)",
  "program varchar(32)", "pid varchar(8)", "message varchar(4096)")
  values("${R_DATE}", "${HOST}", "${PROGRAM}", "${PID}", "${MSGONLY}")
  indexes("datetime", "host", "program", "pid"));
};

The date format used by the MSSQL database must be explicitly set in the /etc/locales.conf file of the syslog-ng server. Edit or create this file as needed for your configuration. A sample is provided below.

[default]
date = "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"
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