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syslog-ng Premium Edition 7.0.12 - Administration Guide

Preface Introduction to syslog-ng The concepts of syslog-ng Installing syslog-ng The syslog-ng PE quick-start guide The syslog-ng PE configuration file Collecting log messages — sources and source drivers
How sources work default-network-drivers: Receive and parse common syslog messages internal: Collecting internal messages file: Collecting messages from text files wildcard-file: Collecting messages from multiple text files network: Collecting messages using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) osquery: Collect and parse osquery result logs pipe: Collecting messages from named pipes program: Receiving messages from external applications python: writing server-style Python sources python-fetcher: writing fetcher-style Python sources snmptrap: Read Net-SNMP traps sun-streams: Collecting messages on Sun Solaris syslog: Collecting messages using the IETF syslog protocol (syslog() driver) system: Collecting the system-specific log messages of a platform systemd-journal: Collecting messages from the systemd-journal system log storage systemd-syslog: Collecting systemd messages using a socket tcp, tcp6, udp, udp6: Collecting messages from remote hosts using the BSD syslog protocol unix-stream, unix-dgram: Collecting messages from UNIX domain sockets windowsevent: Collecting Windows event logs
Sending and storing log messages — destinations and destination drivers
elasticsearch: Sending messages directly to Elasticsearch version 1.x elasticsearch2: Sending messages directly to Elasticsearch version 2.0 or higher file: Storing messages in plain-text files hdfs: Storing messages on the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) http: Posting messages over HTTP kafka: Publishing messages to Apache Kafka logstore: Storing messages in encrypted files mongodb: Storing messages in a MongoDB database network: Sending messages to a remote log server using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) pipe: Sending messages to named pipes program: Sending messages to external applications python: writing custom Python destinations smtp: Generating SMTP messages (e-mail) from logs splunk-hec: Sending messages to Splunk HTTP Event Collector sql: Storing messages in an SQL database syslog: Sending messages to a remote logserver using the IETF-syslog protocol syslog-ng: Forwarding messages and tags to another syslog-ng node tcp, tcp6, udp, udp6: Sending messages to a remote log server using the legacy BSD-syslog protocol (tcp(), udp() drivers) unix-stream, unix-dgram: Sending messages to UNIX domain sockets usertty: Sending messages to a user terminal — usertty() destination Client-side failover
Routing messages: log paths, flags, and filters Global options of syslog-ng PE TLS-encrypted message transfer Advanced Log Transfer Protocol Reliability and minimizing the loss of log messages Manipulating messages parser: Parse and segment structured messages Processing message content with a pattern database Correlating log messages Enriching log messages with external data Monitoring statistics and metrics of syslog-ng Multithreading and scaling in syslog-ng PE Troubleshooting syslog-ng Best practices and examples The syslog-ng manual pages About us

Defining configuration objects inline

Starting with syslog-ng PE 7.0, you can define configuration objects inline, where they are actually used, without having to define them in a separate object. This is useful if you need an object only once, for example, a filter or a rewrite rule, because it makes the configuration much easier to read. Every object can be defined inline: sources, destinations, filters, parsers, rewrite rules, and so on.

To define an object inline, use braces instead of parentheses. That is, instead of <object-type> (<object-id>);, you use <object-type> {<object-definition>};

Example: Using inline definitions

The following two configuration examples are equivalent. The first one uses traditional statements, while the second uses inline definitions.

source s_local {
    system();
    internal();
};
destination d_local {
    file("/var/log/messages");
};
log {
    source(s_local);
    destination(d_local);
};
log {
    source {
        system();
        internal();
    };
    destination {
        file("/var/log/messages");
    };
};

Using channels in configuration objects

Starting with syslog-ng PE 7.0, every configuration object is a log expression. Every configuration object is essentially a configuration block, and can include multiple objects. To reference the block, only the top-level object must be referenced. That way you can use embedded log statements, junctions and in-line object definitions within source, destination, filter, rewrite and parser definitions. For example, a source can include a rewrite rule to modify the messages received by the source, and that combination can be used as a simple source in a log statement. This feature allows you to preprocess the log messages very close to the source itself.

To embed multiple objects into a configuration object, use the following syntax. Note that you must enclose the configuration block between braces instead of parenthesis.

<type-of-top-level-object> <name-of-top-level-object> {
    channel {
        <configuration-objects>
    };
};
Example: Using channels

For example, to process a log file in a specific way, you can define the required processing rules (parsers and rewrite expressions) and combine them in a single object:

source s_apache {
    channel {
        source { file("/var/log/apache/error.log"); };
        parser(p_apache_parser);
    };
};

log { source(s_apache); ... };

The s_apache source uses a file source (the error log of an Apache webserver) and references a specific parser to process the messages of the error log. The log statement references only the s_apache source, and any other object in the log statement can already use the results of the p_apache_parserparser.

NOTE:

You must start the object definition with a channel even if you will use a junction, for example:

parser demo-parser() {
    channel {
        junction {
            channel { ... };
            channel { ... };
        };
    };
};

If you want to embed configuration objects into sources or destinations, always use channels, otherwise the source or destination will not behave as expected. For example, the following configuration is good:

source s_filtered_hosts {
    channel{
        source {
            pipe("/dev/pipe");
            syslog(
                ip(192.168.0.1)
                transport("tcp")
            );
            syslog(
                ip(127.0.0.1)
                transport("tcp")
            );
        };
        filter {
            netmask(10.0.0.0/16);
        };
    };
};;

Global and environmental variables

Starting with syslog-ng PE version 4 F1, it is possible to define global variables in the configuration file. Global variables are actually name-value pairs. When syslog-ng processes the configuration file during startup, it automatically replaces `name` with value. To define a global variable, use the following syntax:

@define name "value"

The value can be any string, but special characters must be escaped.To use the variable, insert the name of the variable enclosed between backticks (`, similarly to using variables in Linux or UNIX shells) anywhere in the configuration file.

The value of the global variable can be also specified using the following methods:

  • Without any quotes, as long as the value does not contain any spaces or special characters. In other word, it contains only the following characters: a-zA-Z0-9_..

  • Between apostrophes, in case the value does not contain apostrophes.

  • Between double quotes, in which case special characters must be escaped using backslashes (\).

TIP:

The environmental variables of the host are automatically imported and can be used as global variables.

Example: Using global variables

For example, if an application is creating multiple log files in a directory, you can store the path in a global variable, and use it in your source definitions.

@define mypath "/opt/myapp/logs"
    source s_myapp_1 {
        file("`mypath`/access.log"
            follow-freq(1)
        );
    };
    source s_myapp_2 {
        file("`mypath`/error.log"
            follow-freq(1)
        );
    };
    source s_myapp_3 {
        file("`mypath`/debug.log"
            follow-freq(1)
        );
    };

The syslog-ng PE application will interpret this as:

@define mypath "/opt/myapp/logs"
    source s_myapp_1 {
        file("/opt/myapp/logs/access.log"
            follow-freq(1)
        );
    };
    source s_myapp_2 {
        file("/opt/myapp/logs/error.log"
            follow-freq(1)
        );
    };
    source s_myapp_3 {
        file("/opt/myapp/logs/debug.log"
            follow-freq(1)
        );
    };

Logging configuration changes

Every time syslog-ng is started, or its configuration is reloaded, it automatically logs the SHA-1 fingerprint of its configuration file using the internal() message source. That way any modification of the configuration of your syslog-ng clients is visible in the central logs. Note that the log message does not contain the exact change, nor can the configuration file be retrieved from the fingerprint. Only the fact of the configuration change can be detected.

NOTE:

Modular configuration files that are included in the main configuration file of syslog-ng PE are included when the fingerprint is calculated. However, other external files (for example, scripts used in program sources or destinations) are excluded, therefore their modifications do not change the fingerprint.

The fingerprint can be examined with the logchksign command-line application, which detects that the fingerprint was indeed generated by a syslog-ng application. Just paste the hashes from the log message after the logchksign command like in the following example:

bin/logchksign "cfg-fingerprint='832ef664ff79df8afc66cd955c0c8aaa3c343f31', cfg-nonce-ndx='0', cfg-signature='785223cfa19ad52b855550be141b00306347b0a9'"
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