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One Identity Safeguard for Privileged Sessions 6.5.0 - REST API Reference Guide

Introduction Using the SPS REST API Basic settings User management and access control Managing SPS General connection settings HTTP connections Citrix ICA connections MSSQL connections RDP connections SSH connections Telnet connections VNC connections Search, download, and index sessions Reporting Health and maintenance Advanced authentication and authorization Completing the Welcome Wizard using REST Enable and configure analytics using REST

Audited sessions

The api/audit/sessions endpoint lists the recorded sessions (active and closed).

URL
GET https://<IP-address-of-SPS>/api/audit/sessions
Cookies
Cookie name Description Required Values
session_id Contains the authentication token of the user Required

The value of the session ID cookie received from the REST server in the authentication response, for example, a1f71d030e657634730b9e887cb59a5e56162860. For details on authentication, see Authenticate to the SPS REST API.

Note that this session ID refers to the connection between the REST client and the SPS REST API. It is not related to the sessions that SPS records (and which also have a session ID, but in a different format).

Sample request

The following command lists the connections.

curl --cookie cookies https://<IP-address-of-SPS>/api/audit/sessions

The following command retrieves the properties of a specific connection.

curl --cookie cookies https://<IP-address-of-SPS>/api/audit/sessions/<session-id>
Response

The following is a sample response received when listing connections.

For details of the meta object, see Message format.

{
  "items": [
    {
      "key": "2",
      "meta": {
        "href": "/api/audit/sessions/2"
      }
    },
    {
      "key": "1",
      "meta": {
        "href": "/api/audit/sessions/1"
      }
    }
  ],
  "meta": {
    "fields": [],
    "first": "/api/audit/sessions?limit=500&offset=0&fields=",
    "href": "/api/audit/sessions",
    "last": "/api/audit/sessions?limit=500&offset=0&fields=",
    "limit": 500,
    "match_count": 39,
    "next": null,
    "offset": 0,
    "parent": "/api/audit",
    "previous": null
  }
}

When retrieving the endpoint of a specific connection, the response is the following.

{
  "body": {
    "active": false,
    "alerts": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/rUhhQZ3jYsY1NDWYp9DEpq/alerts"
    },
    "analytics": {
      "interesting_events": [],
      "scripted": false,
      "scripted_results": {},
      "similar_sessions": [],
      "tags": []
    },
    "channels": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/rUhhQZ3jYsY1NDWYp9DEpq/channels"
    },
    "client": {
      "ip": "10.20.30.40",
      "name": "10.20.30.40",
      "port": 59125
    },
    "creation_time": "2018-11-14T12:26:59.244Z",
    "duration": 57,
    "end_time": "2018-09-15T14:22:00+05:00",
    "events": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/rUhhQZ3jYsY1NDWYp9DEpq/events"
    },
    "hidden": false,
    "indexing": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/rUhhQZ3jYsY1NDWYp9DEpq/indexing"
    },
    "node_id": "6fed7872-065e-41d2-9cfa-ba75e8cad901",
    "origin": "RECORDING",
    "phantom": false,
    "protocol": "SSH",
    "recording": {
      "archived": false,
      "audit_trail": {
        "archive": null,
        "download": {
          "href": "/api/audit/sessions/rUhhQZ3jYsY1NDWYp9DEpq/audit_trail"
        }
      },
      "auth_method": "password",
      "channel_policy": "shell-only",
      "command_extracted": false,
      "connection_policy": "myconnectionpolicy",
      "connection_policy_id": "15682863055beac3c8d23bf",
      "content_reference_id": 30,
      "has_accepted_channel": true,
      "index_status": "INDEXED",
      "server_local": {
        "ip": "10.20.30.40",
        "name": "10.20.30.40",
        "port": 55386
      },
      "session_id": "svc/rUhhQZ3jYsY1NDWYp9DEpq/abcde:29",
      "target": {
        "ip": "10.20.30.40",
        "name": "10.20.30.40",
        "port": 221
      },
      "verdict": "Accepted",
      "window_title_extracted": false
    },
    "revision": 15,
    "server": {
      "ip": "10.20.30.40",
      "name": "10.20.30.40",
      "port": 22
    },
    "start_time": "2018-09-15T15:53:00+05:00",
    "user": {
      "id": "myid",
      "name": "myname",
      "server_username": "myserver"
    },
    "verdict": "ACCEPT"
  },
  "key": "rUhhQZ3jYsY1NDWYp9DEpq",
  "meta": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/rUhhQZ3jYsY1NDWYp9DEpq",
      "parent": "/api/audit/sessions",
      "remaining_seconds": 594
  }
}
Element Type Description
key string Top level element, contains the key of the connection or audit trail.
body Top level element (string) Contains the properties of the connection.
active boolean If the returned value is true, the connection is ongoing.
alerts Top level item

Contains a link to the details of the alerts. For details, see Session alerts.

An event is listed as alert only if the Actions > Store in Connection Database option is selected in the Content Policy used to handle the session.

"alerts": {
    "href": "/api/audit/sessions/7930f4308efe8aecd710202d815b76ff/alerts"
},
analytics Top level item Contains analytics details of the connection.
channels Top level list

Contains a link to the details of the channel.

"channels": {
    "href": "/api/audit/sessions/svc-rUhhQZ3jYsY1NDWYp9DEpq-kecske-29/channels"
},
client Top level item The IP address and port number of the client.
creation_time date The time this document was created. In optimal cases this is near equal to the session's original start_time. However, it can be later than start_time.
duration int The duration of the session in seconds. Computed value.
end_time ISO 8601 date

The timestamp of the end of the connection. For ongoing connection, the value is null.

Starting with SPS 5 LTS, the timestamp is in ISO 8601 format, for example, 2018-10-11T09:23:38.000+02:00. In earlier versions, it was in UNIX timestamp format.

events Top level item

Contains a link to the details of the events. For details, see Session events.

"events": {
    "href": "/api/audit/sessions/7930f4308efe8aecd710202d815b76ff/events"
},
hidden boolean True if this is a session that has not been displayed on the SPS GUI yet (due to fragmented data about the session).
indexer Top level item

Contains the details of indexing. For details on configuring indexing, see Local services: configuring the indexer.

"indexer": {
    "href": "/api/audit/sessions/rUhhQZ3jYsY1NDWYp9DEpq/indexer"
},
node_id string The node ID of the SPS machine where this session has been recorded.
origin string

How SPA received this session. The following values are possible:

  • PSM for sessions based on an audit trail recorded by SPS.

  • LOG for sessions built from log data.

protocol string The protocol of the connection.
recording Top level item Contains the properties of the audit trail.
archived boolean If the audit trail has been archived, this value is true, otherwise it is false. For details about the archiving, see the archive object of the psm.audit_trail field.
audit_trail Top level item The path to the audit trail file on SPS. If the session does not have an audit trail, this element is not used. To download the audit trail, see Download audit trails.
auth_method Top level item

Authentication method: The authentication method used in the connection. For example, password

channel_policy string References the name of the channel policy. You can find the list of channel policies for each protocol at the /api/configuration/<protocol>/channel_policies/ endpoint.
command_extracted boolean If commands have been extracted from this terminal session, this value is true, otherwise it is false. The extracted commands are available in the events object field.
connection_policy string The name of the Connection Policy that handled the session, for example, ssh_gateway_auth. This is the name displayed on the Control > Connections page of the SPS web interface, and in the name field of the Connection Policy object. You can find the list of connection policies for each protocol at the /api/configuration/<protocol>/connections/ endpoint.
connection_policy_id string The key of the Connection Policy that handled the session, for example, 54906683158e768e727100. You can find the list of connection policies for each protocol at the /api/configuration/<protocol>/connections/ endpoint.
content_reference_id long The unique ID of the TCP connection.
has_accepted_channel boolean True, if at least the connection has been built successfully, the authentication was successful, and there was actual traffic.
index_status string

Channel's indexing status: Shows if the channel has been indexed. The following values are possible:

  • CHANNEL_OPEN (0): The connection of the channel is still open (indexer is waiting for the connection to close).

  • NOT_INDEXED (1): All channels of the connection have been closed which belong to the connection. The channel is ready for indexing, unless the audit trail was placed in the skipped_connections queue.

  • INDEXING_IN_PROGRESS (2): The channel is being indexed (indexing in progress). Note that SPS will return search results for the parts of the channel are already indexed.

  • INDEXED (3): Indexing the channel is complete.

  • INDEXING_NOT_REQUIRED (4): Indexing not required (indexing is not enabled for the connection).

  • INDEXING_FAILED (5): Indexing failed. The indexer service writes the corresponding error message in the error_message column of the indexer_jobs table. Note that SPS will return search results for the parts of the channel that were successfully indexed before the error occurred. For example, if the error occurred at the end of a long audit trail, you can still search for content from the first part of the audit trail.

  • NO_TRAIL (6): Auditing is not enabled for the channel.

network_id string The ID of the Linux network namespace where the session originated from.
server_local Top level item The IP address and port number of SPS.
session_id string The identifier of the session.
target Top level item The IP address and port number the client targeted for connection.
verdict string

The connection verdict. Possible values are:

  • accept

    The connection attempt was successful.

  • accept-terminated

    The connection violated a content policy, and was terminated by SPS.

  • auth-fail

    Authentication failure.

  • deny

    The connection was denied.

  • fail

    The connection attempt failed.

  • gw-auth-fail

    Gateway authentication failure.

  • key-error

    The connection attempt failed due to a hostkey mismatch.

  • user-mapping-fail

    The connection attempt failed due to a user mapping failure.

window_title_extracted boolean If window titles have been extracted from this graphical session, this value is true, otherwise it is false. The extracted window titles are available in the events object field.
revision int The revision number of the document. A newer document has a larger revision number than an older one. This helps you to determine which session version is newer.
server Top level item The IP address and port number of the remote server.
trail_downloads Top level item

Contains a link to the details of the audit-trail downloads in this session (if any).

"trail_downloads": {
    "href": "/api/audit/sessions/rUhhQZ3jYsY1NDWYp9DEpq/trail_downloads"
},
start_time ISO 8601 date

The timestamp of the start of the connection.

Starting with SPS 5 LTS, the timestamp is in ISO 8601 format, for example, 2018-10-11T09:23:38.000+02:00. In earlier versions, it was in UNIX timestamp format.

user Top level item The details of the user authenticating on the remote server.
id string The ID of the user.
name string The username used for authenticating against the gateway.
server_username string The username used for authenticating on the remote server.
verdict string Indicates what SPS decided about the session. A session verdict that originates from log events or other external events.
Analytics elements Type Description
analytics Top level element

Contains analytics details of the connection. For example:

"analytics": {
    "interesting_events": [],
    "scripted": false,
    "scripted_results": {},
    "similar_sessions": [],
    "tags": []
},
interesting_events string A list of commands and window titles from the session that could be interesting from a security point of view.
score.aggregated int

The risk score that SPA assigned to the session. Values range from 0 to 100, with 100 representing the highest risk.

score.details object This is an object where the keys are algorithm names and values are algorithm-specific details about the score result.
scripted boolean True if the SPA module marked the session as scripted because of non-human activity.
scripted_results object

A key-value pair, where key=<algorithm-name>, value=<reason-of-the-decision>. The algorithm can be clockmaster or gapminder.

Result: True/False. Reason: Either the reason behind the result, or if no result is avalialble, an error message (for example, the baseline has not been built yet).

similar_sessions string Collection of similar sessions from different sources.
tags string The Analytics tags section in Search > Details.
Audit trail elements Type Description
archive Top level element

Indicates whether the audit trail has been archived or not. If the audit trail has not been archived yet, the value of the element is null. For example:

"audit_trail": {
    "archive": {
        "date": "2018-11-25T12:00:05.000Z",
        "path": "2018-11-23/",
        "policy": "8106930065bf7eb4c3cf59",
        "server": "\\\\10.20.30.40\\archive\\abc123 (user: myuser)"
    },
    "download": {
        "href": "/api/audit/sessions/10/audit_trail"
    }
},
date ISO 8601 date The date when the audit trail was archived in ISO 8601 date.
server hostname or IP address The address of the remote server where the audit trail was archived.
path string The path on the remote server where the audit trail was archived.
policy string The ID of the archiving policy that was used to archive the audit trail.
download string The download element allows downloading the audit trail.
Channel elements Type Description
key string Top level element, contains the ID of the channel.
items Top level element (string) The properties of the channel.
active boolean If the returned value is true, the session has not ended yet and the channel is active.
audit_stream_id string The identifier of the channel's audit stream. If the session does not have an audit trail, this element is not used.
channel_id long The unique ID of the channel.
client_x509_subject string The client's certificate in Telnet or VNC sessions. Available only if the <Protocol name> Control > Connections > Client-side transport security settings > Peer certificate validation is enabled in SPS.
duration int The duration of the connection. Computed value.
end_time ISO 8601 date The ISO 8601 date of the end of the connection. For ongoing connections, the value is null.
rule_num string The number of the line in the Channel policy applied to the channel.
start_time ISO 8601 date The ISO 8601 date of the start of the connection.
type string

The type of the channel. Additional elements might be used with certain ICA, SSH and RDP channel types.

verdict string

The channel's connection verdict. Possible values are:

  • accept

    The connection attempt was successful.

  • deny

    The connection attempt was denied.

  • four-eyes-deferred

    Four-eyes authorization is unable to progress as it is waiting for a remote username.

  • four-eyes-error

    An internal error occurred during four-eyes authorization.

  • four-eyes-reject

    The connection attempt was rejected by a four-eyes agent on SPS.

  • four-eyes-timeout

    Four-eyes authorization timed out.

command string

Used with the session exec SSH channel type.

The executed command.

scp_path string

Used with the session exec scp SSH channel type.

The folder used for Secure Copy.

subsystem_name string

Used with the session subsystem sftp SSH channel type.

The name of the used subsystem.

originator.ip string

Used with the local forward and remote forward SSH channel types.

The source address of the forwarded traffic.

originator.name string The source host name of the forwarded traffic. If this information is not available, the value is the IP address instead.
originator.port int

Used with the local forward and remote forward SSH channel types.

The source port of the forwarded traffic.

connected.ip string

Used with the local forward and remote forward SSH channel types.

The target address of the forwarded traffic.

connected.name string The target host name of the forwarded traffic. If this information is not available, the value is the IP address instead.
connected.port int

Used with the local forward and remote forward SSH channel types.

The target port of the forwarded traffic.

dynamic_channel string

Used with the dynamic virtual RDP channel type.

The name of the dynamic channel.

device_name string

Used with the serial redirect, parallel redirect, printer redirect, disk redirect, and scard redirect RDP channel types.

The name of the device.

application string

Used with ICA connections.

The name of the application accessed in a seamless Citrix ICA connection.

four_eyes_authorizer string

The username of the user who authorized the session.

Available only if four-eyes authorization is required for the channel.

four_eyes_description string

The description of the session submitted by the authorizer of the session.

Available only if four-eyes authorization is required for the channel.

Client elements Type Description
client Top level element

The IP address and port number of the client. For example:

"client": {
    "ip": "10.20.30.40",
    "port": 59125
},
ip string The IP address of the client.
name string The host name of the client. If this information is not available, the value is the IP address instead.
port int The port number of the client.
Server elements Type Description
server Top level element

The IP address and port number of the remote server. For example:

"server": {
    "ip": "10.20.30.40",
    "port": 55386
},
ip string The IP address of the remote server.
name string The host name of the remote server. If this information is not available, the value is the IP address instead.
port int The port number of the remote server.
Server_local elements Type Description
server_local Top level element

The IP address and port number of SPS. For example:

"server_local": {
    "ip": "10.20.30.40",
    "port": 55386
},
ip string The IP address of SPS.
name string The host name of SPS. If this information is not available, the value is the IP address instead.
port int The port number of SPS.
Target elements Type Description
target Top level element

The IP address and port number the client targeted for connection. For example:

"target": {
    "ip": "10.20.30.40",
    "port": 221
},
ip string The IP address the client targeted for connection.
name string The host name of the client targeted for connection. If this information is not available, the value is the IP address instead.
port int The port number the client targeted for connection.
Examples:

All possible SSH channel types:

"channels": [
  {
    "key": "1",
    "meta": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/1/channels/1"
    },
    "body": {
      "type": "session shell",
      "verdict": "accept",
      "start_time": 1451901988,
      "end_time": 1451902145,
      "duration": 157
    }
  },
  {
    "key": "2",
    "meta": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/1/channels/2"
    },
    "body": {
      "type": "session exec",
      "verdict": "accept",
      "start_time": 1451902141,
      "end_time": 1451902145,
      "duration": 4,
      "command": "ls"
    }
  },
  {
    "key": "3",
    "meta": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/1/channels/3"
    },
    "body": {
      "type": "session exec scp",
      "verdict": "accept",
      "start_time": 1451902141,
      "end_time": 1451902145,
      "duration": 4,
      "scp_path": "<path-to-folder>"
    }
  },
  {
    "key": "4",
    "meta": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/1/channels/4"
    },
    "body": {
      "type": "session subsystem sftp",
      "verdict": "accept",
      "start_time": 1451902142,
      "end_time": 1451902145,
      "duration": 3,
      "subsystem_name": "sftp"
    }
  },
  {
    "key": "5",
    "meta": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/1/channels/5"
    },
    "body": {
      "type": "local forward",
      "verdict": "accept",
      "start_time": 1451902145,
      "end_time": 1451902146,
      "duration": 1,
      "originator.address": "::1",
      "originator.port": 59578,
      "connected.address": "<server>",
      "connected.port": 22
    }
  },
  {
    "key": "6",
    "meta": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/1/channels/6"
    },
    "body": {
      "type": "remote forward",
      "verdict": "accept",
      "start_time": 1451902145,
      "end_time": 1451902146,
      "duration": 1,
      "originator.address": "::1",
      "originator.port": 42212,
      "connected.address": "localhost",
      "connected.port": 9898
    }
  },
  {
    "key": "7",
    "meta": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/1/channels/7"
    },
    "body": {
    "type": "x11 forward",
    "verdict": "deny",
    "start_time": 1451902149,
    "end_time": 1451902149,
    "duration": 0
    }
  }
 ]

All possible RDP channel types:

"channels": [
  {
    "key": "1",
    "meta": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/1/channels/1"
    },
    "body": {
      "type": "drawing",
      "verdict": "accept",
      "start_time": 1451901988,
      "end_time": 1451902145,
      "duration": 157
    }
  },
  {
    "key": "2",
    "meta": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/1/channels/2"
    },
    "body": {
      "type": "sound",
      "verdict": "accept",
      "start_time": 1451902141,
      "end_time": 1451902145,
      "duration": 4
    }
  },
  {
    "key": "3",
    "meta": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/1/channels/3"
    },
    "body": {
      "type": "clipboard",
      "verdict": "accept",
      "start_time": 1451902141,
      "end_time": 1451902145,
      "duration": 4
    }
  },
  {
    "key": "4",
    "meta": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/1/channels/4"
    },
    "body": {
      "type": "seamless",
      "verdict": "deny",
      "start_time": 1451902142,
      "end_time": 1451902142,
      "duration": 0
    }
  },
  {
    "key": "5",
    "meta": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/1/channels/5"
    },
    "body": {
      "type": "dynamic virtual",
      "verdict": "accept",
      "start_time": 1451902145,
      "end_time": 1451902146,
      "duration": 1,
      "dynamic_channel": "Microsoft::Windows::RDS::Geometry::v08.01"
    }
  },
  {
    "key": "6",
    "meta": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/1/channels/6"
    },
    "body": {
      "type": "custom",
      "verdict": "deny",
      "start_time": 1451902145,
      "end_time": 1451902145,
      "duration": 0
    }
  },
  {
    "key": "7",
    "meta": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/1/channels/7"
    },
    "body": {
      "type": "serial redirect",
      "verdict": "accept",
      "start_time": 1451902149,
      "end_time": 1451902150,
      "duration": 1,
      "device_name": "COM1"
    }
  },
  {
    "key": "8",
    "meta": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/1/channels/8"
    },
    "body": {
      "type": "parallel redirect",
      "verdict": "accept",
      "start_time": 1451902149,
      "end_time": 1451902150,
      "duration": 1,
      "device_name": "LPT1"
    }
  },
  {
    "key": "9",
    "meta": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/1/channels/9"
    },
    "body": {
      "type": "printer redirect",
      "verdict": "accept",
      "start_time": 1451902149,
      "end_time": 1451902150,
      "duration": 1,
      "device_name": "PRN22"
    }
  },
  {
    "key": "10",
    "meta": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/1/channels/10"
    },
    "body": {
      "type": "disk redirect",
      "verdict": "accept",
      "start_time": 1451902149,
      "end_time": 1451902150,
      "duration": 1,
      "device_name": "J:"
    }
  },
  {
    "key": "11",
    "meta": {
      "href": "/api/audit/sessions/1/channels/11"
    },
    "body": {
      "type": "scard redirect",
      "verdict": "accept",
      "start_time": 1451902149,
      "end_time": 1451902150,
      "duration": 1,
      "device_name": "SCARD"
    }
  }
Status and error codes

The following table lists the typical status and error codes for this request. For a complete list of error codes, see Application level error codes.

Code Description Notes
201 Created The new resource was successfully created.
400 InvalidQuery The requested filter or its value is invalid.
401 Unauthenticated The requested resource cannot be retrieved because the client is not authenticated and the resource requires authorization to access it. The details section contains the path that was attempted to be accessed, but could not be retrieved.
403 Unauthorized The requested resource cannot be retrieved because the client is not authorized to access it. The details section contains the path that was attempted to be accessed, but could not be retrieved.
404 NotFound The requested object does not exist.

Download audit trails

You can download the audit trail of a session from the /api/audit/sessions/<session-id>/audit_trail endpoint. To find a specific audit trail, see Searching in the session database. You can download audit trails that are available on SPS, and also audit trails that have been archived (if SPS can access the archived audit trail).

curl --cookie cookies "https://<IP-address-of-SPS>/api/audit/sessions/<session-id>/audit_trail"

To actually create a file, you must save the downloaded data into a file (use the .zat file extension), for example:

curl --cookie cookies "https://<IP-address-of-SPS>/api/audit/sessions/<session-id>/audit_trail" > my-downloaded-trail.zat

You can replay the downloaded audit trails with the Safeguard Desktop Player application. For details, see Safeguard Desktop Player User Guide.

If you want to replay an ongoing session in follow mode, you have to download the audit trail in .srs format. Use the ?format=srs option:

curl --cookie cookies "https://<IP-address-of-SPS>/api/audit/sessions/<session-id>/audit_trail?format=srs" > my-downloaded-trail.srs

For details, see "Replay audit files in follow mode" in the Safeguard Desktop Player User Guide.

Searching in the session database

You can list, search, and filter the SPS session database at the /api/audit/sessions endpoint. You can use the following actions:

  • ?start

    Display sessions that started after the specified date. Use the ISO 8601 format for the date, for example, 2017-01-25T10:00.

  • ?q

    Filter the list using one or more property (element) of the sessions.

  • ?content

    Search in the content of indexed sessions.

  • ?end

    Display sessions that ended before the specified date. Use the ISO 8601 format for the date, for example, 2017-01-25T10:00.

  • ?fields

    Display the selected properties (elements and values) of the listed sessions.

  • ?limit

    Configure the pagination of the displayed results using the ?offset and ?limit parameters.

    The ?limit parameter allows you to configure the maximum number of results to display on a page at once.

    The default value of ?limit is 500.

    NOTE:

    The default value of 500 is the maximum permitted value you can set for ?limit. If you set the ?limit parameter to a value bigger than 500, only the first 500 results will be displayed.

  • ?offset

    Configure the pagination of the displayed results using the ?offset and ?limit parameters.

    The ?offset parameter allows you to configure the offset from the first result that is displayed. This can be useful if the number of items returned exceeds the number of items displayed on the first page, and you want to navigate to any of the subsequent items displayed on other pages.

    The default value of ?offset is null.

    NOTE:

    The maximum number of search results in One Identity Safeguard for Privileged Sessions is 10000. As a result, any ?offset values set to larger than 10000 will be ignored and the results exceeding the value of 10000 will not be displayed.

  • ?sort

    Sort the results based on the values of the fields.

  • ?format

    Configure the format of the displayed results.

    The default value of ?format is json. If you do not configure the ?format parameter, the results will be displayed in JSON format.

    To display search results in a CSV format, enter csv as a value.

To combine multiple expressions, use the & (ampersand) character, for example:

Display the target server and port of each active session:

curl --cookie cookies "https://<IP-address-of-SPS>/api/audit/sessions?fields=psm.target.address,psm.target.port&q=active:true"

Display 10 sessions at once, and navigate to 31-40:

curl --cookie cookies "https://<IP-address-of-SPS>/api/audit/sessions?limit=10&offset=31"

Search in metadata and session content at the same time:

curl --cookie cookies "https://<IP-address-of-SPS>/api/audit/sessions?q=protocol:ssh&content=sudo"
NOTE:

If you use curl, use quotation marks for the URL to avoid problems with the & (ampersand) character.

Response

The response to search or filtering action contains a list of the matching sessions, as well as some additional meta fields. For example:

{
    "items": [
        {
            "body": {
                "duration": 0,
                "name": "myname",
                "start_time": "2017-01-25T11:11:52.000+01:00"
            },
            "key": "2",
            "meta": {
                "href": "/api/audit/sessions/2"
            }
        },
        {
            "body": {
                "duration": 34,
                "name": "myname",
                "start_time": "2017-01-25T11:11:11.000+01:00"
            },
            "key": "10",
            "meta": {
                "href": "/api/audit/sessions/10"
            }
        }
    ],
    "meta": {
        "fields": [
            "start_time",
            "name",
            "duration"
        ],
        "first": "/api/audit/sessions?limit=500&offset=0&fields=start_time,name,duration&q=name%3Amyname&=duration",
        "href": "/api/audit/sessions",
        "last": "/api/audit/sessions?limit=500&offset=0&fields=start_time,name,duration&q=name%3Amyname&sort=duration",
        "limit": 500,
        "match_count": 2,
        "next": null,
        "offset": 0,
        "parent": "/api/audit",
        "previous": null
    }
Element Type Description
items list Top level element, a list containing the details of the matching sessions.
body JSON object

Contains the information returned about a session, that is, the fields selected with the ?fields expression. For example, if you used the fields=start_time,psm.gateway_username,duration expression in your query, then the body element contains these fields for each returned session:

"body": {
                "duration": 0,
                "name": null,
                "start_time": "2017-01-25T11:11:52.000+01:00"
            },

For details about the returned fields, see Element .

key string

A globally unique string that identifies the session. This session ID has the following format: svc/<unique-random-hash>/<name-of-the-connection-policy>:<session-number-since-service-started>/<protocol>, for example, svc/5tmEaM7xdNi1oscgVWpbZx/ssh_console:1/ssh.

Log messages related to the session also contain this ID. For example:

2015-03-20T14:29:15+01:00 demo.example
zorp/scb_ssh[5594]: scb.audit(4):
(svc/5tmEaM7xdNi1oscgVWpbZx/ssh_console:0/ssh):
Closing connection; connection='ssh_console',
protocol='ssh', connection_id='409829754550c1c7a27e7d',
src_ip='10.40.0.28', src_port='39183',
server_ip='10.10.20.35', server_port='22',
gateway_username='', remote_username='example-username',
verdict='ZV_ACCEPT'
			

Note that when using the session ID in a REST call, you must replace the special characters in the ID with the hyphen (-) character. For example, if the session ID in the log message is svc/fNLgRmAyf5EtycgUYnKc1B/ssh_demo2:2, use the svc-fNLgRmAyf5EtycgUYnKc1B-ssh_demo2-2 ID in REST calls.

In addition to the usual meta elements of other endpoints, search results can contain the following additional elements.

Element Type Description
meta JSON object Top level element, a list containing meta information about the response.
fields list

Contains the list of data fields returned about each session, that is, the fields selected with the ?fields expression. For example, if you used the fields=start_time,psm.gateway_username,duration expression in your query, then the body element contains these fields for each returned session:

"fields": [
            "start_time",
            "name",
            "duration"
        ],

For details about the returned fields, see Element .

limit integer The maximum number of sessions returned in a the response (by default, 500).
match_count integer The number of results matching the query.
next string A query to retrieve the next set of search results, if match_count is higher than limit.
offset integer Indicates the position of the results in this response, relative to the total number of results (match_count). Otherwise, its value is null.
previous string A query to retrieve the previous set of search results, if match_count is higher than limit, and offset is higher than 0. Otherwise, its value is null.
Filtering

You can use the ?q option to filter the list using one or more property (element) of the sessions.

?q=protocol:ssh

You can escape special characters using the backslash character.

?q=server_username:\"Windows User\"

To add multiple elements to the filter, you can use the AND, AND NOT, and OR operators.

?q=protocol:ssh AND verdict:accept AND NOT name:admin

You can create groups using () (parentheses).

?q=(client.address:10.20.30.40 OR target.address:10.20.30.40) AND verdict:accept

You can also use () (parentheses) to add multiple possible values for a property.

?q=protocol:(ssh rdp)

You can use the * (asterisk) and ? (question mark) wildcards for string-type values.

?q=name:?dmi*

You can define ranges using [] (brackets) or {} (braces) and the TO operator. This only works for numeric (int) values.

  • [ means equal or higher than the following value

  • ] means equal or lower than the preceding value

  • { means higher than the following value

  • }means lower than the preceding value

For example, the following range resolves to 22:

?q=port:{21 TO 23}

You can also use the * (asterisk) wildcard in the range.

?q=start_time:[* TO 1461654799]

Note that not all connection data can be used for filtering. The available elements are:

  • active

    Boolean, true means the session is ongoing (it is still active).

  • auth_method

    String, the authentication method used.

  • channel_policy

    String, the key of the channel policy.

  • client.address

    String, the IP address of the client.

  • client.port

    Integer, the port of the client.

  • psm.connection_policy

    String, the key of the connection policy.

  • end_time

    The date of the end of the session in ISO 8601 format.

  • name

    String, the username used for authenticating against the gateway.

  • protocol

    String, the protocol of the session.

  • server.address

    String, the IP of the remote server.

  • psm.server_local.address

    String, the IP of SPS.

  • psm.server_local.port

    String, the port of SPS.

  • server.port

    String, the port of the remote server.

  • server_username

    String, the username used for authenticating on the remote server.

  • session_id

    String, the identifier of the session.

  • start_time

    The date of the start of the session in ISO 8601 format.

  • target.address

    String, the IP the client targeted in the session.

  • target.port

    Integer, the port the client targeted in the session.

  • verdict

    String, the connection verdict. Possible values are:

    • accept

      The connection attempt was successful.

    • accept-terminated

      The connection violated a content policy, and was terminated by SPS.

    • auth-fail

      Authentication failure.

    • deny

      The connection was denied.

    • fail

      The connection attempt failed.

    • gw-auth-fail

      Gateway authentication failure.

    • key-error

      The connection attempt failed due to a hostkey mismatch.

    • user-mapping-fail

      The connection attempt failed due to a user mapping failure.

Content search in indexed audit trails

You can use the ?content option to search for keywords that appear in the content of the audit trails. Such content is any text that appeared on the screen in terminal or graphical sessions, or commands that the user typed in terminal sessions. Note that content search works only if:

  • Indexing was enabled in the connection policy related to the audit trail during the session, and

  • the audit trail has already been indexed.

?content="my-search-expression"

You can use the Apache Lucene query syntax to create the search expression, but note the following points.

  • You must format the search expression as an URL, and escape special characters accordingly. For example, if your search expression is man iptables, you must escape the whitespace: man%20iptables

    For a list of special (reserved) URL characters, see RFC3986.

  • Do not begin the expression with the * wildcard.

Examples:

Search for the word example

?content=example

Search for the words example, examples, and so on:

?content=example%3F

Search for the words example, examine, and so on:

?content=exam%2A

Search in metadata and session content at the same time:

curl --cookie cookies "https://<IP-address-of-SPS>/api/audit/sessions?q=protocol:ssh&content=sudo"

For further details and examples, see "Searching in the contents of audit trails" in the Administration Guide.

Displaying session data

You can use the ?fields option to display the selected data (body elements) of each session.

?fields=protocol

To list multiple elements, use the , (comma) character. Note that the response includes the selected fields in alphabetic order, not in the order they were specified.

?fields=protocol,name

To list all possible elements, use the fields=* expression.

?fields=*

Note that not all connection data can be displayed in the generated list. The available elements are:

  • active

    Boolean, true means the connection is ongoing.

  • archived

    Boolean, true means the session has been archived.

  • auth_method

    String, the authentication method used.

  • channel_policy

    String, the key of the channel policy.

  • client.address

    String, the IP address of the client.

  • client.port

    Integer, the port of the client.

  • connection_policy

    String, the key of the connection policy.

  • duration

    Integer, the duration of the session. Computed value.

  • end_time

    The date of the end of the session in ISO 8601 format.

  • name

    String, the username used for authenticating against the gateway.

  • protocol

    String, the protocol of the session.

  • server.address

    String, the IP of the remote server.

  • server_local.address

    String, the IP of SPS.

  • server_local.port

    Integer, the port of SPS.

  • server.port

    Integer, the port of the remote server.

  • server_username

    String, the username used for authenticating on the remote server.

  • session_id

    String, the identifier of the session.

  • start_time

    The date of the start of the session in ISO 8601 format.

  • target.address

    String, the IP the client targeted in the session.

  • target.port

    Integer, the port the client targeted in the session.

Date-specific search

To display search results only for specific date intervals, you can use the ?start and ?end options.

  • The ?start option selects the sessions that started after the specified date (based on the value of the start_time field).

  • The ?end option selects the sessions that ended before the specified date (based on the value of the end_time field).

  • Both options accept the date in ISO 8601 format.

?start=2017-01-25T11:11:52.000+01:00
?end=2017-01-25T11:41:52.000+01:00
?start=2017-01-24&end=2017-01-25
Examples:

Select sessions that started on January 20, 2017, or later:

?start=2017-01-20

Select sessions that started on 11:00 January 20, 2017, or later:

?start=2017-01-20T11:00

Select sessions that ended on January 20, 2017:

?end=2017-01-20

Select sessions started and ended on January 20, 2017:

?start=2017-01-20&end=2017-01-20

Select sessions started after 11:00, January 20, 2017, and ended before 09:00, January 21, 2017:

?start=2017-01-20T11:00&end=2017-01-21T09:00
Changing the display limit

You can use the ?limit option to change the number of items displayed at once. The default limit is 500.

?limit=1000

To navigate beyond the displayed set, use the offset option.

Navigating large datasets

You can use the ?offset option to navigate data sets that extend beyond the display limit. The default value of the offset is 0, this is the initially displayed set. To move to other items beyond the initial set, increase the value to a number that corresponds to the item where you want to start displaying results from.

Example: the display limit is the default 500, and the number of sessions is 1012. The initial 500 sessions are listed at:

?offset=0

To view sessions from 501 to 1000, change the offset to 501:

?offset=501

To display the remaining 12 sessions, change the offset to 1001:

?offset=1001
Sort the results

You can sort the search results using the sort expression, for example, based on the length of the sessions:

?sort=duration

You can use any field to sort the results. By default, sorting returns the results in ascending order, if you use ?sort=duration, then the shortest session is at the beginning of the list. To sort the results in descending order, add the minus sign (-) before the field name. For example, the response to the following expression starts with the longest session:

?sort=-duration

You can specify multiple fields to order the list. In this case, the list is first ordered using the first field, then the second, and so on. For example, to order the list first by duration, then by start time, use the following expression.

?sort=duration,start_time

The following example sorts the results by duration, and displays the start time, gateway username, and duration fields.

curl --cookie cookies "https://<IP-address-of-SPS>/api/audit/sessions?sort=duration&fields=start_time,psm.gateway_username,duration"
Configure the format of the displayed results

The default value of ?format is json. If you do not configure the ?format parameter, the results will be displayed in JSON format.

?format=json

To display search results in a CSV format, enter csv as a value.

?format=csv
Example: querying sessions in CSV result format

Given that the following sessions were recorded:

{
  "1": {
    "channel": [
      {"channel_id": 1},
      {"channel_id": 2}
    ],
    "recording": {
      "session_id": 1,
      "archived": false,
      "channel_policy": "policy1",
      "content_reference_id": 1,
      "connection_policy": "connection1",
      "auth_method": "password",
      "target": {
        "port": 2222,
        "ip": "1.1.1.1",
        "name": "1.1.1.1"
      },
      "server_local": {
        "port": 46,
        "ip": "1.1.1.1",
        "name": "1.1.1.1"
      }
    },
    "user": {
      "server_username": "user1",
      "gateway_username": "user1"
    },
    "client": {
      "port": 48679,
      "ip": "2.2.2.2",
      "name": "2.2.2.2"
    },
    "active": false,
    "start_time": 1,
    "duration": 4,
    "server": {
      "port": 22,
      "ip": "2.2.2.2",
      "name": "2.2.2.2"
    },
    "end_time": 5,
    "protocol": "ssh"
  },
  "2": {
    "channel": [
      {"channel_id": 3},
      {"channel_id": 4}
    ],
    "recording": {
      "session_id": 2,
      "archived": false,
      "channel_policy": "policy2",
      "content_reference_id": 2,
      "connection_policy": "connection2",
      "auth_method": "password",
      "target": {
        "port": 2222,
        "ip": "1.1.1.1",
        "name": "1.1.1.1"
      },
      "server_local": {
        "port": 46,
        "ip": "1.1.1.1",
        "name": "1.1.1.1"
      }
    },
    "user": {
      "server_username": "user2",
      "gateway_username": "user2"
    },
    "client": {
      "port": 48680,
      "ip": "3.3.3.3",
      "name": "3.3.3.3"
    },
    "active": false,
    "start_time": 1,
    "duration": 4,
    "server": {
      "port": 24,
      "ip": "2.2.2.2",
      "name": "2.2.2.2"
    },
    "end_time": 7,
    "protocol": "ssh"
  }
}

When the query is the following:

curl --cookie cookies "https://<IP-address-of-SPS>/api/audit/sessions?format=csv&fields=protocol,end_time,user.gateway_username,server.ip,client.ip,client.port"

The response is the following:

"Key","Protocol","End time","Gateway username","Server IP","Client IP","Client port"
"2","ssh","7","user2","2.2.2.2","3.3.3.3","48680"
"1","ssh","5","user1","2.2.2.2","2.2.2.2","48679"
Example: querying sessions in CSV result format with interesting events

Given that the following sessions were recorded:

{
  "1":{
    "origin": "RECORDING",
    "protocol": "SSH",
    "analytics": {
      "interesting_events": ["ssh", "sudo"],
      "similar_sessions": []
    },
    "recording": {
      "session_id": "1",
      "verdict": "ACCEPT",
      "audit_trail": "/var/lib/zorp/audit/532078660569910c6542b2/01/audit-scb_ssh-1451900800-1.zat",
      "connection_policy": "ssh1",
      "content_reference_id": 1
    }
  },
  "2":{
    "origin": "RECORDING",
    "protocol": "SSH",
    "analytics": {
      "interesting_events": ["sudo", "systemctl"],
      "similar_sessions": []
    },
    "recording": {
      "session_id": "2",
      "verdict": "ACCEPT",
      "connection_policy": "ssh2",
      "content_reference_id": 2
    }
  }
}

When the query is the following:

curl --cookie cookies "https://<IP-address-of-SPS>/api/audit/sessions?sort=recording.session_id&format=csv&fields=recording.session_id,analytics.interesting_events,analytics.similar_sessions"

The response is the following:

"Key","Recording Session ID","Analytics Interesting events","Similar Sessions"
"1","1","ssh",""
"1","1","sudo",""
"2","2","sudo",""
"2","2","systemctl",""
Example: querying sessions in CSV result format with audit trail link

Given that the following sessions were recorded:

{
  "svc-paKzcMJwXghEFJ9UvsdqFU-sid-1": {
    "origin": "RECORDING",
    "protocol": "SSH",
    "recording": {
      "session_id": "1",
      "verdict": "ACCEPT",
      "audit_trail": "/var/lib/zorp/audit/532078660569910c6542b2/01/audit-scb_ssh-1451900800-1.zat",
      "connection_policy": "ssh1",
      "content_reference_id": 1
    }
  },
  "svc-paKzcMJwXghEFJ9UvsdqFU-sid-2": {
   "origin": "RECORDING",
    "protocol": "SSH",
    "recording": {
      "session_id": "2",
      "verdict": "ACCEPT",
      "connection_policy": "ssh2",
      "content_reference_id": 2
    }
  }
}

When the query is the following:

curl --cookie cookies "https://<IP-address-of-SPS>/api/audit/sessions?format=csv&fields=trail_download_link"

The response is the following:

"Key","Audit trail download link"
"svc-paKzcMJwXghEFJ9UvsdqFU-sid-2",""
"svc-paKzcMJwXghEFJ9UvsdqFU-sid-1","https://127.0.0.1/api/audit/sessions/svc-paKzcMJwXghEFJ9UvsdqFU-sid-1/audit_trail"

Searching in connection content

You can search in the contents of individual connections at the api/audit/sessions/<session-id>/content/?q=<my-search-expression> endpoint.

URL
GET https://<IP-address-of-SPS>/api/audit/sessions/<session-id>/content/?q=<my-search-expression>
Cookies
Cookie name Description Required Values
session_id Contains the authentication token of the user Required

The value of the session ID cookie received from the REST server in the authentication response, for example, a1f71d030e657634730b9e887cb59a5e56162860. For details on authentication, see Authenticate to the SPS REST API.

Note that this session ID refers to the connection between the REST client and the SPS REST API. It is not related to the sessions that SPS records (and which also have a session ID, but in a different format).

Sample request

The following command retrieves those events in the contents of a specific connection that match the search expression(s).

curl --cookie cookies https://<IP-address-of-SPS>/api/audit/sessions/<session-id>/content/?q=<my-search-expression>
NOTE:

Make sure that you use the ?q option and that when you use it, you do not leave it empty. Not using the ?q option or an empty ?q will result in an empty "items" list returned in the response.

You can use the Apache Lucene query syntax to create the search expression, but note the following points.

  • You must format the search expression as a URL, and escape special characters accordingly. For example, if your search expression is man iptables, you must escape the whitespace: man%20iptables

  • Do not begin the expression with the * wildcard.

Response

The response contains a list of those events in the contents of the connection that match the search expression(s). The response also contains some meta fields.

If you specified a search expression using the ?q option and the response returns an empty "items" list, that can indicate that:

  • The search returned no results.

  • There is no content recorded for the connection.

The following is an example response:

{
    "items": [
        { 
            "channel.id": 5, 
            "end_time": "2017-08-14T10:35:43.957000", 
            "rank": 2.4756217002868652,
            "record_id": {
                "begin": 158,
                "end": 160,
                "for_screenshot": 158
            },
            "start_time": "2017-08-14T10:35:19.098000", 
            "trail_id": "12" 
        }
    ],
    "meta":
        { 
            "href": "/api/audit/sessions/2a620c1cfeb39c537a5e80280283d741/content", 
            "parent": "/api/audit/sessions/2a620c1cfeb39c537a5e80280283d741", 
            "remaining_seconds": 599 
        }
}
Element Type Description
items list Top-level element, a list containing the details of the matching session.
channel.id integer A reference to the ID of the channel in the session where the event occurred.
end_time string

The timestamp of when the content disappeared from the screen.

Starting with SPS 5 LTS, the timestamp is in ISO 8601 format, for example, 2018-10-11T09:23:38.000+02:00. In earlier versions, it was in UNIX timestamp format.

rank float

Indicates the relevance of the match.

If there are several results, the order of them is based on their relevance.

record_id integer The content element's exact position in the audit trail file.
begin integer The identifier of the screenshot in the audit trail file where the content element first appeared.
end integer The identifier of the screenshot in the audit trail file where the content element last appeared.
for_screenshot integer The identifier of the most relevant screenshot in the audit trail file. This is the screenshot on which the event in question is the most clearly visible. For details on how to generate and retrieve the screenshot, see Generate and retrieve screenshot for content search.
start_time string

The timestamp of when the content first appeared on the screen and recording started.

Starting with SPS 5 LTS, the timestamp is in ISO 8601 format, for example, 2018-10-11T09:23:38.000+02:00. In earlier versions, it was in UNIX timestamp format.

trail_id integer The unique identifier of the trail that contains the event.

In addition, search results can contain the usual meta elements of other endpoints:

Element Type Description
meta JSON object

Top-level element, a list containing meta information about the response.

For details about the type of information returned, see Message format.

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