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syslog-ng Premium Edition 7.0.19 - Administration Guide

Preface Introduction to syslog-ng The concepts of syslog-ng Installing syslog-ng The syslog-ng PE quick-start guide The syslog-ng PE configuration file Collecting log messages — sources and source drivers
How sources work default-network-drivers: Receive and parse common syslog messages internal: Collecting internal messages file: Collecting messages from text files wildcard-file: Collecting messages from multiple text files linux-audit: Collecting messages from Linux audit logs network: Collecting messages using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) office365: Fetching logs from Office 365 osquery: Collect and parse osquery result logs pipe: Collecting messages from named pipes program: Receiving messages from external applications python: writing server-style Python sources python-fetcher: writing fetcher-style Python sources snmptrap: Read Net-SNMP traps syslog: Collecting messages using the IETF syslog protocol (syslog() driver) system: Collecting the system-specific log messages of a platform systemd-journal: Collecting messages from the systemd-journal system log storage systemd-syslog: Collecting systemd messages using a socket tcp, tcp6, udp, udp6: Collecting messages from remote hosts using the BSD syslog protocol udp-balancer: Receiving UDP messages at very high rate unix-stream, unix-dgram: Collecting messages from UNIX domain sockets windowsevent: Collecting Windows event logs
Sending and storing log messages — destinations and destination drivers
elasticsearch2: Sending messages directly to Elasticsearch version 2.0 or higher (DEPRECATED) elasticsearch-http: Sending messages to Elasticsearch HTTP Event Collector file: Storing messages in plain-text files hdfs: Storing messages on the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) http: Posting messages over HTTP kafka: Publishing messages to Apache Kafka logstore: Storing messages in encrypted files mongodb: Storing messages in a MongoDB database network: Sending messages to a remote log server using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) pipe: Sending messages to named pipes program: Sending messages to external applications python: writing custom Python destinations sentinel: Sending logs to the Microsoft Azure Sentinel cloud smtp: Generating SMTP messages (email) from logs splunk-hec: Sending messages to Splunk HTTP Event Collector sql: Storing messages in an SQL database stackdriver: Sending logs to the Google Stackdriver cloud syslog: Sending messages to a remote logserver using the IETF-syslog protocol syslog-ng(): Forward logs to another syslog-ng node tcp, tcp6, udp, udp6: Sending messages to a remote log server using the legacy BSD-syslog protocol (tcp(), udp() drivers) unix-stream, unix-dgram: Sending messages to UNIX domain sockets usertty: Sending messages to a user terminal — usertty() destination Client-side failover
Routing messages: log paths, flags, and filters Global options of syslog-ng PE TLS-encrypted message transfer Advanced Log Transfer Protocol Reliability and minimizing the loss of log messages Manipulating messages parser: Parse and segment structured messages Processing message content with a pattern database Correlating log messages Enriching log messages with external data Monitoring statistics and metrics of syslog-ng Multithreading and scaling in syslog-ng PE Troubleshooting syslog-ng Best practices and examples The syslog-ng manual pages Glossary

About disk queue files

Normal and reliable queue files

The key difference between disk queue files that employ the reliable(yes) option and not is the strategy they employ. Reliable disk queues guarantee that all the messages passing through them are written to disk first, and removed from the queue only after the destination has confirmed that the message has been successfully received. This prevents message loss, for example, due to syslog-ng PE crashes if the client and the destination server communicate using the Advanced Log Transfer Protocol (ALTP). Note that the Reliable Log Transfer Protocol is available only in syslog-ng Premium Edition version 6 LTS. Of course, using the reliable(yes) option introduces a significant performance penalty as well. Reliable disk queues employ an in-memory cache buffer, the content of which is also written to the disk, and which is intended to speed up the process of reading back data from the queue.

Normal disk queues work in a different way: they employ an in-memory output buffer (set in qout-size()) and an in-memory overflow queue (set in mem-buf-length()). The disk-buffer file itself is only used if the in-memory output buffer (set in qout-size()) is filled up completely. This approach has better performance (because of less disk IO operations), but also carries the risk of losing a maximum of qout-size() plus mem-buf-length() number of messages in case of an unexpected power failure or application crash.

Size and truncation of queue files

Disk queue files tend to grow. Each may take up to disk-buf-size() bytes on the disk. Due to the nature of reliable queue files, all the messages traversing the queue are written to disk, constantly increasing the size of the queue file. Truncation only occurs if the read and write heads of the queue reach the same position. Given that new messages arrive all the time, at least a small number of messages will almost always be stored in the queue file at all times. As a result, the queue file is not truncated automatically, but grows until it reaches the maximal configured size, after which the write head will wrap around, later followed by the read head.

In case of normal disk queue files, growth in size is not so apparent, as the disk-based queue file is only used if the in-memory overflow buffer fills up. Once the destination sends messages faster than the incoming message rate, the queue will start to empty, and when the read and write heads of the queue reach the same position, the queue files are finally truncated.

Note that if a queue file becomes corrupt, syslog-ng PE starts a new one. This might lead to the queue files consuming more space in total than their maximal configured size and the number of configured queue files multiplied together.

Filters

The following sections describe how to select and filter log messages.

Using filters

Filters perform log routing within syslog-ng: a message passes the filter if the filter expression is true for the particular message. If a log statement includes filters, the messages are sent to the destinations only if they pass all filters of the log path. For example, a filter can select only the messages originating from a particular host. Complex filters can be created using filter functions and logical boolean expressions.

To define a filter, add a filter statement to the syslog-ng configuration file using the following syntax:

filter <identifier> { <filter_type>("<filter_expression>"); };

Then use the filter in a log path, for example:

log {
    source(s1);
    filter(<identifier>);
    destination(d1); };

You can also define the filter inline. For details, see Defining configuration objects inline.

Example: A simple filter statement

The following filter statement selects the messages that contain the word deny and come from the host example.

filter demo_filter { host("example") and match("deny" value("MESSAGE")) };
log {
    source(s1);
    filter(demo_filter);
    destination(d1); };

The following example does the same, but defines the filter inline.

log {
    source(s1);
    filter { host("example") and match("deny" value("MESSAGE")) };
    destination(d1); };

Combining filters with boolean operators

When a log statement includes multiple filter statements, syslog-ng sends a message to the destination only if all filters are true for the message. In other words, the filters are connected with the logical AND operator. In the following example, no message arrives to the destination, because the filters are exclusive (the hostname of a client cannot be example1 and example2 at the same time):

filter demo_filter1 { host("example1"); };
filter demo_filter2 { host("example2"); };
log {
    source(s1); source(s2);
    filter(demo_filter1); filter(demo_filter2);
    destination(d1); destination(d2); };

To select the messages that come from either host example1 or example2, use a single filter expression:

filter demo_filter { host("example1") or host("example2"); };
log {
    source(s1); source(s2);
    filter(demo_filter);
    destination(d1); destination(d2); };

Use the not operator to invert filters, for example, to select the messages that were not sent by host example1:

filter demo_filter { not host("example1"); };

However, to select the messages that were not sent by host example1 or example2, you have to use the and operator (that's how boolean logic works):

filter demo_filter { not host("example1") and not host("example2"); };

Alternatively, you can use parentheses to avoid this confusion:

filter demo_filter { not (host("example1") or host("example2")); };

For a complete description on filter functions, see Filter functions.

The following filter statement selects the messages that contain the word deny and come from the host example.

filter demo_filter { host("example") and match("deny" value("MESSAGE")); };

The value() parameter of the match function limits the scope of the function to the text part of the message (that is, the part returned by the ${MESSAGE} macro). For details on using the match() filter function, see match().

TIP:

Filters are often used together with log path flags. For details, see Log path flags.

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